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Psalm 83:7

ESV Gebal and Ammon and Amalek, Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;
NIV Byblos, Ammon and Amalek, Philistia, with the people of Tyre.
NASB Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek, Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;
CSB Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek, Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre.
NLT Gebalites, Ammonites, and Amalekites; and people from Philistia and Tyre.
KJV Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre;
NKJV Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek; Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;

What does Psalm 83:7 mean?

Asaph's list of enemies conspiring to attack Israel (Psalm 83:1–5) has noted the Edomites, Ishmaelites, Moabites, and Hagrites (Psalm 83:6). Here, he mentions five more groups who sought Israel's total annihilation: Gebal, Ammon, Amalek, Philistia, and Tyre. The next verse will include Asshur (Psalm 83:8). This roster doesn't cleanly align with any event recorded in Scripture. It may be a prophecy of the future, or a general statement about how Israel's enemies come from all sides. Another potential match is an incident with Jehoshaphat; this would imply this psalm was written in the style of Asaph, not by Asaph himself (2 Chronicles 20:14).

Gebal was a Phoenician port primarily known for trade and craft (Ezekiel 27:9; 1 Kings 5:18; Joshua 13:5). Ammon, brother of Moab, was born out of an incestuous incident involving Abraham's nephew, Lot (Genesis 19:34–38). They were another of Israel's historic enemies (Judges 10:7–8; 2 Samuel 12:26). The Amalekites were one of Israel's most bitter, harassing, and recurrent foes (Exodus 17:8; Judges 6:3; 1 Samuel 15:1–9; Samuel 30:1) until their seeming erasure by David (1 Chronicles 4:43). Tyre was among the more important Phoenician cities.

The Philistines (Judges 3:1–3) are probably Israel's most well-known enemy from the Old Testament. The stories of Samson (Judges 16:28–30), Goliath (1 Samuel 17:2–3), Saul (1 Samuel 14:52), and David (2 Samuel 5:25; 1 Chronicles 18:1) are directly tied to battles between Israel and Philistia.
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