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Psalm chapter 133

New International Version

1 A song of ascents. Of David. How good and pleasant it is when God's people live together in unity! 2 It is like precious oil poured on the head, running down on the beard, running down on Aaron's beard, down on the collar of his robe. 3 It is as if the dew of Hermon were falling on Mount Zion. For there the LORD bestows his blessing, even life forevermore.
English Standard Version

1 A Song of Ascents. Of David. Behold, how good and pleasant it is when brothers dwell in unity! 2 It is like the precious oil on the head, running down on the beard, on the beard of Aaron, running down on the collar of his robes! 3 It is like the dew of Hermon, which falls on the mountains of Zion! For there the LORD has commanded the blessing, life forevermore.
King James Version

1 {A Song of degrees of David.} Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity! 2 It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments; 3 As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the LORD commanded the blessing, even life for evermore.
New American Standard Bible

1 Behold, how good and how pleasant it is For brothers to live together in unity! 2 It is like the precious oil on the head, Running down upon the beard, As on Aaron’s beard, The oil which ran down upon the edge of his robes. 3 It is like the dew of Hermon Coming down upon the mountains of Zion; For the LORD commanded the blessing there—life forever.
New Living Translation

1 A song for pilgrims ascending to Jerusalem. A psalm of David. How wonderful and pleasant it is when brothers live together in harmony! 2 For harmony is as precious as the anointing oil that was poured over Aaron's head, that ran down his beard and onto the border of his robe. 3 Harmony is as refreshing as the dew from Mount Hermon that falls on the mountains of Zion. And there the LORD has pronounced his blessing, even life everlasting.
Christian Standard Bible

1 How good and pleasant it is when brothers live together in harmony! 2 It is like fine oil on the head, running down on the beard, running down Aaron's beard onto his robes. 3 It is like the dew of Hermon falling on the mountains of Zion. For there the LORD has appointed the blessing--life forevermore.

What does Psalm chapter 133 mean?

This psalm is exceptionally brief, considered the fourth-shortest of the modern "chapters" of Scripture. Only Psalm 117, Psalm 134, and Psalm 131 are shorter. The message of the psalm is crucial, however: a celebration of brotherhood and unity. This is a "song of ascent," a short composition used as families would travel to Jerusalem for one of the required feasts. It's possible this psalm was inspired by David's ascent to the throne, when the separate tribes of Israel joined to recognize his leadership.

Jesus commanded His followers to love one another (John 13:34–35) as a primary sign of our love for Him (John 14:15). This does not mean being in complete agreement on all details. It does mean agreeing to disagree, when the issue is not critical, and disagreeing without being disagreeable. The joy of relationships marked by unity cannot be overstated (Psalm 133:1).

Anointing with oil is symbolic of God's protection. David references the priestly anointing of Aaron, in particular. This ties the concept of brotherly love and unity to our spiritual role. All Christians—those saved by faith in Christ—are part of a spiritual priesthood (1 Peter 2:9). Unity and love for one another, within the church, is both a divine command and a profound blessing (Psalm 133:2).

Hermon is a mountain quite a distance from Jerusalem, at the northeast border of the kingdom of Israel. However, it is part of a mountain range so tall it can sometimes be seen from as far away as the Dead Sea. Water from sources such as a distant mountain are well beyond the sight or control of the city. Dew is controlled by the weather, not human efforts. Both natural sources reflect the sovereign nature of God, who provides for His people. Unity, as well, comes as a blessing from God (John 17:21), who enables otherwise fallible people to be united (Psalm 133:3).