Genesis 36:31 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓]

Genesis 36:31, NIV: "These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned:"

Genesis 36:31, ESV: "These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the Israelites."

Genesis 36:31, KJV: "And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel."

Genesis 36:31, NASB: "Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel."

Genesis 36:31, NLT: "These are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites:"

Genesis 36:31, CSB: "These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites:"

What does Genesis 36:31 mean? [⇑ See verse text ⇑]

This opens a passage listing those who ruled over Edom during a specific era: the years before Israel had any kings. It's unclear whether this era extended right up to the time of Israel's first king (1 Samuel 8:4–5) or if it happened much earlier.

Esau (Genesis 36:1) and his family conquered the land of Seir (Genesis 14:6; Deuteronomy 2:12). His twin brother, Jacob, was renamed Israel (Genesis 35:10), but his descendants will not arrive in the Promised Land for several centuries (Exodus 1:1–5; 12:40), after which time they will be ruled by "judges," not kings (Judges 21:25).