Genesis 10:31

ESV These are the sons of Shem, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.
NIV These are the sons of Shem by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.
NASB These are the sons of Shem, according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and according to their nations.
CSB These are Shem's sons by their clans, according to their languages, in their lands and their nations.
NLT These were the descendants of Shem, identified by clan, language, territory, and national identity.
KJV These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

What does Genesis 10:31 mean?

This verse serves to formally conclude the genealogy of Shem and his descendants, along with describing the regions in which they settled. However, the line from Shem to Abraham will be described more specifically in chapter 11. This entire chapter has been devoted to explaining the origins of the Middle East's various nations. All people, including every possible tribe or race, are descended from Noah and his sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Notably, the details in this part of the Bible are only concerned with family relationships. Other than a quick comment about Peleg (Genesis 10:25), the story of how the different tribes wound up with separated languages and territories is left entirely to the next part of Scripture. That explanation will come through the story of the Tower of Babel.
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