Genesis 10:20

ESV These are the sons of Ham, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations.
NIV These are the sons of Ham by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.
NASB These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and by their nations.
CSB These are Ham's sons by their clans, according to their languages, in their lands and their nations.
NLT These were the descendants of Ham, identified by clan, language, territory, and national identity.
KJV These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations.

What does Genesis 10:20 mean?

This verse wraps up the section describing the lines of Noah's son Ham as they dispersed and established themselves following the events described in chapter 11. Most genealogies in Genesis follow a long, history-spanning line of fathers and sons. The lists given here in chapter 10, however, are meant to be broad. Rather than tracing through time, this "table of nations" shows how the sons of Noah fathered all the tribes and peoples of the ancient world.

Ham's sin against Noah resulted in a curse (Genesis 9:20–25). However, Ham's descendants would become an important people group in the region. Some, in particular the Canaanites, will participate in great wickedness, and God will cause them to be conquered by His people Israel (Deuteronomy 9:3–6). The following verses will describe how the people of Israel will come from the line of Noah's son Shem.
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