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John chapter 2

New International Version

1 On the third day a wedding took place at Cana in Galilee. Jesus' mother was there, 2 and Jesus and his disciples had also been invited to the wedding. 3 When the wine was gone, Jesus' mother said to him, 'They have no more wine.'
4 Woman, why do you involve me?' Jesus replied. 'My hour has not yet come.'
5 His mother said to the servants, 'Do whatever he tells you.'
6 Nearby stood six stone water jars, the kind used by the Jews for ceremonial washing, each holding from twenty to thirty gallons.
7 Jesus said to the servants, 'Fill the jars with water'; so they filled them to the brim.
8 Then he told them, 'Now draw some out and take it to the master of the banquet.' They did so, 9 and the master of the banquet tasted the water that had been turned into wine. He did not realize where it had come from, though the servants who had drawn the water knew. Then he called the bridegroom aside 10 and said, 'Everyone brings out the choice wine first and then the cheaper wine after the guests have had too much to drink; but you have saved the best till now.'
11 What Jesus did here in Cana of Galilee was the first of the signs through which he revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him.
12 After this he went down to Capernaum with his mother and brothers and his disciples. There they stayed for a few days.
13 When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 In the temple courts he found people selling cattle, sheep and doves, and others sitting at tables exchanging money. 15 So he made a whip out of cords, and drove all from the temple courts, both sheep and cattle; he scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables. 16 To those who sold doves he said, 'Get these out of here! Stop turning my Father's house into a market!' 17 His disciples remembered that it is written: 'Zeal for your house will consume me.'
18 The Jews then responded to him, 'What sign can you show us to prove your authority to do all this?'
19 Jesus answered them, 'Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days.'
20 They replied, 'It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three days?' 21 But the temple he had spoken of was his body. 22 After he was raised from the dead, his disciples recalled what he had said. Then they believed the scripture and the words that Jesus had spoken.
23 Now while he was in Jerusalem at the Passover Festival, many people saw the signs he was performing and believed in his name. 24 But Jesus would not entrust himself to them, for he knew all people. 25 He did not need any testimony about mankind, for he knew what was in each person.
English Standard Version

1 On the third day there was a wedding at Cana in Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there. 2 Jesus also was invited to the wedding with his disciples. 3 When the wine ran out, the mother of Jesus said to him, “They have no wine.” 4 And Jesus said to her, “Woman, what does this have to do with me? My hour has not yet come.” 5 His mother said to the servants, “Do whatever he tells you.”
6 Now there were six stone water jars there for the Jewish rites of purification, each holding twenty or thirty gallons. 7 Jesus said to the servants, “Fill the jars with water.” And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And he said to them, “Now draw some out and take it to the master of the feast.” So they took it. 9 When the master of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and did not know where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), the master of the feast called the bridegroom 10 and said to him, “Everyone serves the good wine first, and when people have drunk freely, then the poor wine. But you have kept the good wine until now.” 11 This, the first of his signs, Jesus did at Cana in Galilee, and manifested his glory. And his disciples believed in him.
12 After this he went down to Capernaum, with his mother and his brothers and his disciples, and they stayed there for a few days.
13 The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 In the temple he found those who were selling oxen and sheep and pigeons, and the money-changers sitting there. 15 And making a whip of cords, he drove them all out of the temple, with the sheep and oxen. And he poured out the coins of the money-changers and overturned their tables. 16 And he told those who sold the pigeons, “Take these things away; do not make my Father’s house a house of trade.” 17 His disciples remembered that it was written, “Zeal for your house will consume me.”
18 So the Jews said to him, “What sign do you show us for doing these things?” 19 Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” 20 The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” 21 But he was speaking about the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.
23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover Feast, many believed in his name when they saw the signs that he was doing. 24 But Jesus on his part did not entrust himself to them, because he knew all people 25 and needed no one to bear witness about man, for he himself knew what was in man.
King James Version

1 And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: 2 And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage. 3 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. 4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come. 5 His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. 6 And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece. 7 Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it. 9 When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom, 10 And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now. 11 This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.
12 After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples: and they continued there not many days. 13 And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem, 14 And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: 15 And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables; 16 And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise. 17 And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up. 18 Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? 19 Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 20 Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days? 21 But he spake of the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.
23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did. 24 But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men, 25 And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man.
New American Standard Bible

1 On the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there; 2 and both Jesus and His disciples were invited to the wedding. 3 When the wine ran out, the mother of Jesus *said to Him, 'They have no wine.' 4 And Jesus *said to her, 'What business do you have with Me, woman? My hour has not yet come.' 5 His mother *said to the servants, 'Whatever He tells you, do it.' 6 Now there were six stone waterpots standing there for the Jewish custom of purification, containing two or three measures each. 7 Jesus *said to them, 'Fill the waterpots with water.' So they filled them up to the brim. 8 And He *said to them, 'Draw some out now and take it to theheadwaiter.' And they took it to him. 9 Now when the headwaiter tasted the water which had become wine, and did not know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the headwaiter *called the groom, 10 and *said to him, 'Every man serves the good wine first, and when the guests are drunk, then he serves the poorer wine; but you have kept the good wine until now.' 11 This beginning of His signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and revealed His glory; and His disciples believed in Him.
12 After this He went down to Capernaum, He and His mother, and His brothers and His disciples; and they stayed there a few days.
13 The Passover of the Jews was near, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 And within the temple grounds He found those who were selling oxen, sheep, and doves, and the money changers seated at their tables. 15 And He made a whip of cords, and drove them all out of the temple area, with the sheep and the oxen; and He poured out the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables; 16 and to those who were selling the doves He said, 'Take these things away from here; stop making My Father’s house aplace of business!' 17 His disciples remembered that it was written: 'ZEAL FOR YOUR HOUSE WILL CONSUME ME.' 18 The Jews then said to Him, 'What sign do You show us as your authority for doing these things?' 19 Jesus answered them, 'Destroy thistemple, and in three days I will raise it up.' 20 The Jews then said, 'It took forty-six years to build this temple, and yet You will raise it up in three days?' 21 But He was speaking about the temple of His body. 22 So when He was raised from the dead, His disciples remembered that He said this; and they believed the Scripture and the word which Jesus had spoken.
23 Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in His name as they observed His signs which He was doing. 24 But Jesus, on His part, was not entrusting Himself to them, because He knew all people, 25 and because He did not need anyone to testify about mankind, for He Himself knew what was in mankind.
New Living Translation

1 The next day there was a wedding celebration in the village of Cana in Galilee. Jesus' mother was there, 2 and Jesus and his disciples were also invited to the celebration. 3 The wine supply ran out during the festivities, so Jesus' mother told him, 'They have no more wine.'
4 'Dear woman, that's not our problem,' Jesus replied. 'My time has not yet come.'
5 But his mother told the servants, 'Do whatever he tells you.'
6 Standing nearby were six stone water jars, used for Jewish ceremonial washing. Each could hold twenty to thirty gallons. 7 Jesus told the servants, 'Fill the jars with water.' When the jars had been filled, 8 he said, 'Now dip some out, and take it to the master of ceremonies.' So the servants followed his instructions.
9 When the master of ceremonies tasted the water that was now wine, not knowing where it had come from (though, of course, the servants knew), he called the bridegroom over. 10 'A host always serves the best wine first,' he said. 'Then, when everyone has had a lot to drink, he brings out the less expensive wine. But you have kept the best until now!'
11 This miraculous sign at Cana in Galilee was the first time Jesus revealed his glory. And his disciples believed in him.
12 After the wedding he went to Capernaum for a few days with his mother, his brothers, and his disciples.
13 It was nearly time for the Jewish Passover celebration, so Jesus went to Jerusalem. 14 In the Temple area he saw merchants selling cattle, sheep, and doves for sacrifices; he also saw dealers at tables exchanging foreign money. 15 Jesus made a whip from some ropes and chased them all out of the Temple. He drove out the sheep and cattle, scattered the money changers' coins over the floor, and turned over their tables. 16 Then, going over to the people who sold doves, he told them, 'Get these things out of here. Stop turning my Father's house into a marketplace!'
17 Then his disciples remembered this prophecy from the Scriptures: 'Passion for God's house will consume me.'
18 But the Jewish leaders demanded, 'What are you doing? If God gave you authority to do this, show us a miraculous sign to prove it.'
19 'All right,' Jesus replied. 'Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.'
20 'What!' they exclaimed. 'It has taken forty-six years to build this Temple, and you can rebuild it in three days?' 21 But when Jesus said 'this temple,' he meant his own body. 22 After he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered he had said this, and they believed both the Scriptures and what Jesus had said.
23 Because of the miraculous signs Jesus did in Jerusalem at the Passover celebration, many began to trust in him. 24 But Jesus didn't trust them, because he knew human nature. 25 No one needed to tell him what mankind is really like.
Christian Standard Bible

1 On the third day a wedding took place in Cana of Galilee. Jesus's mother was there, and 2 Jesus and his disciples were invited to the wedding as well. 3 When the wine ran out, Jesus's mother told him, "They don't have any wine."
4 "What does that have to do with you and me, woman?" Jesus asked. "My hour has not yet come."
5 "Do whatever he tells you," his mother told the servants.
6 Now six stone water jars had been set there for Jewish purification. Each contained twenty or thirty gallons.
7 "Fill the jars with water," Jesus told them. So they filled them to the brim. 8 Then he said to them, "Now draw some out and take it to the headwaiter." And they did.
9 When the headwaiter tasted the water (after it had become wine), he did not know where it came from--though the servants who had drawn the water knew. He called the groom 10 and told him, "Everyone sets out the fine wine first, then, after people are drunk, the inferior. But you have kept the fine wine until now."
11 Jesus did this, the first of his signs, in Cana of Galilee. He revealed his glory, and his disciples believed in him.
12 After this, he went down to Capernaum, together with his mother, his brothers, and his disciples, and they stayed there only a few days.
13 The Jewish Passover was near, and so Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 In the temple he found people selling oxen, sheep, and doves, and he also found the money changers sitting there. 15 After making a whip out of cords, he drove everyone out of the temple with their sheep and oxen. He also poured out the money changers' coins and overturned the tables. 16 He told those who were selling doves, "Get these things out of here! Stop turning my Father's house into a marketplace!"
17 And his disciples remembered that it is written: Zeal for your house will consume me.
18 So the Jews replied to him, "What sign will you show us for doing these things?"
19 Jesus answered, "Destroy this temple, and I will raise it up in three days."
20 Therefore the Jews said, "This temple took forty-six years to build, and will you raise it up in three days?"
21 But he was speaking about the temple of his body. 22 So when he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the statement Jesus had made.
23 While he was in Jerusalem during the Passover Festival, many believed in his name when they saw the signs he was doing. 24 Jesus, however, would not entrust himself to them, since he knew them all 25 and because he did not need anyone to testify about man; for he himself knew what was in man.

What does John chapter 2 mean?

The second chapter of John covers two events. The first is the miracle of turning water into wine. The second is Jesus' driving the money-lenders out of the temple complex. A common theme of the gospel of John is contrast, and the two stories in this chapter are very different. One is joyful and quiet. The other is scolding and public. The miracle at the wedding is the first of seven "signs" that John uses to prove that Jesus is God.

Wedding celebrations in that era were spread out over several days. Unlike today, when travel and communication are easy, it was difficult to predict when guests would show up. Traveling to the wedding site could take days. So, it was the host's responsibility to provide enough food and drink for all the guests who came. Jesus' act of turning water into wine, for the sake of the married couple, wasn't just a gift. It was a way to save them from extreme embarrassment. It was also done in a quiet, almost secretive way. So far as we know, no one except a few of the disciples, Jesus' mother Mary, and the servants even knew it happened. John's gospel is the only one that records this miracle.

The changing of water into wine was also a powerful symbol of Jesus' purpose. The six water jugs were used for purification from sin. Six is the biblical number of man, and of imperfection. Wine is symbolic of blood. The miracle's meaning was as much about Jesus replacing ritual purification with divine blood as anything else. His participation in a simple, joyful event also explains His compassion for people. This didn't stop His enemies from criticizing Him, however (Luke 15:1–2).

John's gospel is meant to approach Jesus' ministry from a different perspective than the other three gospels. While Matthew, Mark, and Luke all mention Jesus clearing the temple late in His ministry, John places this event very early. The most likely reason for this is that Jesus actually cleared the temple twice. This would have made the second event even more offensive to the local religious leaders, and accelerated their hatred of Jesus.

Jesus' anger at the situation was not because of money, itself. Pilgrims could not easily travel with sacrificial animals. So, it made sense to provide sacrifices for them to buy near to the temple. What bothered Jesus was the way in which business was being done. Instead of providing a service to pilgrims, the merchants were gouging people to make a profit. The emphasis on making money, instead of serving others, was unacceptable. Though He is not described as being enraged, or out of control, it's easy to see how forceful Jesus was in this situation.

This is also one of Jesus' first opportunities to predict His own death and resurrection. Most who heard Him claim to be able to rebuild the temple in three days assumed He was speaking of the brick-and-stone temple. After His resurrection, the disciples will realize that Christ was speaking about His own body: destroyed and restored after three days.