Romans 16:16 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓]

Romans 16:16, NIV: Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ send greetings.

Romans 16:16, ESV: Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you.

Romans 16:16, KJV: Salute one another with an holy kiss. The churches of Christ salute you.

Romans 16:16, NASB: Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you.

Romans 16:16, NLT: Greet each other in Christian love. All the churches of Christ send you their greetings.

Romans 16:16, CSB: Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ send you greetings.

What does Romans 16:16 mean? [⇑ See verse text ⇑]

Paul has concluded the list of people to whom he would like his Roman readers to pass on his greetings. He wraps up this section with an encouragement for them all to greet each other with a holy kiss. Paul concluded many of his letter in this way (1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26).

Many modern Christians, especially in the west, might not fully understand this idea. Nevertheless, a kiss on one or both cheeks has been a common greeting between friends in many cultures throughout human history. It was practiced in the early church as a way of confirming the sibling bond of love between believers in Christ. Paul likely refers to it as a "holy" kiss to set it apart from other kinds of kissing.

Paul also offers general greetings to the church in Rome from all the Christian churches he has been associated with. As always, Paul emphasizes the ultimate unity of all the churches that are of Christ.