Luke 6:14

ESV Simon, whom he named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew,
NIV Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew,
NASB Simon, whom He also named Peter, and his brother Andrew; and James and John; and Philip and Bartholomew;
CSB Simon, whom he also named Peter, and Andrew his brother; James and John; Philip and Bartholomew;
NLT Simon (whom he named Peter), Andrew (Peter’s brother), James, John, Philip, Bartholomew,
KJV Simon, (whom he also named Peter,) and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew,

What does Luke 6:14 mean?

Luke begins naming the disciples with the first six Jesus met. Andrew had been a disciple of John the Baptist before Jesus' public ministry. Presumably when they were on the Jordan River east of Jerusalem, John pointed Jesus out to him, and Andrew left John for Jesus. Andrew told Simon about Jesus and brought his brother to Him; it was then that Jesus gave Simon the nickname Peter (John 1:35–42). The next day, when Jesus decided to go to Galilee, He met Philip and Bartholomew, also called Nathanael (John 1:43–51). Not long after, Jesus met Andrew and Peter again and called them as well as their business partners, James and John (Mark 1:16–20). These six were convenient; Philip was from Bethsaida on the northern tip of the Sea of Galilee. Andrew and Peter were also from Bethsaida but lived in Capernaum where James and John also lived (John 1:44; Mark 1:16–21, 29).

Peter is a fisherman. Throughout the New Testament, he is called "Peter," "Simon," or "Cephas." "Simon" is his given name. "Peter" is the nickname Jesus gave him; it means stone or rock. "Cephas" is the Syrian version of "Peter." From this point, Luke almost exclusively uses "Peter" in his Gospel.

Of the two pairs of brothers, we know the least about Andrew. He is Peter's brother, business partner (Mark 1:16), and housemate (Mark 1:29). He was present when Jesus prophesied about the end times (Mark 13:3), but he was not one of Jesus' three closest companions: Peter, James, and John. Besides here, Luke only mentions him in the list of eleven disciples who meet with others before Pentecost (Acts 1:13).

James and John are also brothers and fishermen. Their father is Zebedee (Mark 1:20) and tradition states their mother is Salome, Jesus' mother's sister (John 19:25; Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40), making James and John Jesus' cousins. Salome is known for asking Jesus to make James and John His advisors when He is king (Matthew 20:20–21). Jesus gives James and John the nickname Boanerges which means "Sons of Thunder" (Mark 3:17). James becomes the first apostle to die when he is martyred by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:2). John, the "disciple whom Jesus loves," is the last to die; despite extensive torture, including being boiled in oil, John dies of natural causes at an old age.

We don't know very much about Philip. He was not Herod Antipas' brother (Matthew 14:3) or Philip the Evangelist, one of the first deacons and a friend of Paul (Acts 6:5–6; 8:4–5; 21:8). He is from Bethsaida on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee where the Jordan River runs in from the north (John 1:44). It was he who invited Bartholomew, also called Nathanael, to meet Jesus (John 1:45). When faced with 5,000 hungry men, plus women and children, Jesus challenged Philip to find bread for them all (John 6:5–7). And it was Philip who asked Jesus to show them the Father (John 14:8).

We know even less about Bartholomew other than he is a friend of Philip and his name means "son of Tolmai." When Philip invited him to meet Jesus, Bartholomew famously said, "Can anything good come out of Nazareth?" Jesus called him "an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no deceit!" and he is the first to call Jesus the Son of God (John 1:43–49). "Bartholomew" is a family name; his given name may be Nathanael (John 21:2).
What is the Gospel?
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