Luke 5:9

ESV For he and all who were with him were astonished at the catch of fish that they had taken,
NIV For he and all his companions were astonished at the catch of fish they had taken,
NASB For amazement had seized him and all his companions because of the catch of fish which they had taken;
CSB For he and all those with him were amazed at the catch of fish they had taken,
NLT For he was awestruck by the number of fish they had caught, as were the others with him.
KJV For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken:

What does Luke 5:9 mean?

In return for the use of his boat and as an introduction to a lifelong mission, Jesus has allowed Peter and Andrew (Mark 1:16) to catch an enormous haul of fish. The overloaded nets threaten to break, and both their boat and James and John's are at risk of sinking (Luke 1:1–7). This is how Jesus works: turning scarcity into abundance beyond anyone's wildest expectations.

When Jesus performs a miracle, people are as impressed with the quality of the results as the fact of the results. When He turned water into wine at the wedding at Cana, the steward praised the taste (John 2:9–10). After Jesus healed a man who was deaf and had a speech impediment, the bystanders proclaimed, "He has done all things well. He even makes the deaf hear and the mute speak" (Mark 7:37).

The four fishermen are soon to learn Jesus' greatest miracle is what He can do in human lives. Later, Paul will tell the Ephesians God can do "far more abundantly than all that we ask or think" (Ephesians 3:20). That includes building a worldwide church: a body of brothers and sisters from every nation and tribe (Revelation 7:9). Jesus doesn't just invite the fishermen into this work (Luke 5:10). He also so changes them personally that religious leaders become confused as to how uneducated tradesmen could express such profound theological arguments (Acts 4:13).

Those in the church these men build continue to experience God's extravagant blessings. When speaking of eternity, Paul quotes Isaiah 64:4: "But, as it is written, 'What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man imagined, what God has prepared for those who love him'" (1 Corinthians 2:9). The fish are just the beginning.
What is the Gospel?
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