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Daniel 11:31

ESV Forces from him shall appear and profane the temple and fortress, and shall take away the regular burnt offering. And they shall set up the abomination that makes desolate.
NIV "His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.
NASB Forces from him will arise, desecrate the sanctuary fortress, and do away with the regular sacrifice. And they will set up the abomination of desolation.
CSB His forces will rise up and desecrate the temple fortress. They will abolish the regular sacrifice and set up the abomination of desolation.
NLT His army will take over the Temple fortress, pollute the sanctuary, put a stop to the daily sacrifices, and set up the sacrilegious object that causes desecration.
KJV And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
NKJV And forces shall be mustered by him, and they shall defile the sanctuary fortress; then they shall take away the daily sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation.

What does Daniel 11:31 mean?

This passage records predictions given to Daniel in the year 536 BC (Daniel 10:1). Included are the atrocities of Antiochus IV Epiphanes in the second century BC (Daniel 11:21–29). In response to Jewish unrest, Antiochus brought brutal persecution and death (Daniel 11:30). He outlawed many important religious practices. Among these were dietary laws, ritual sacrifice, observing of the Sabbath, and circumcision. Antiochus's troops—his "forces"—slaughtered tens of thousands of Jews. Those who agreed to abandon the Lord to worship idols were spared (Daniel 11:32).

Perhaps the most spiteful act commanded by Antiochus is identified as "the abomination that makes desolate," or "the abomination of desolation." This is mentioned elsewhere in Daniel's visions (Daniel 8:13; 12:11). In 167 BC, Antiochus replaced the altar of God in the temple (Exodus 40:6) with one dedicated to Zeus. There, he sacrificed a pig (Leviticus 11:7–8). This was a calculated act, meant to be as profane and offensive as possible under Old Testament law.

Bible scholars suggest that Antiochus IV Epiphanes's actions were only a partial fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy. Antiochus's example appears to foreshadow another infamous biblical figure: the Antichrist of the end times. Jesus spoke about this very prophecy (Matthew 24:15), but He was looking to the future, even two centuries after Antiochus's death. This seems to correspond to a restoration of temple worship in the end times (Daniel 12:11), followed by a world dictator demanding worship (Revelation 13:14–15).
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