Romans 5:14 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓]

Romans 5:14, NIV: "Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who is a pattern of the one to come."

Romans 5:14, ESV: "Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come."

Romans 5:14, KJV: "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come."

Romans 5:14, NASB: "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the violation committed by Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come."

Romans 5:14, NLT: "Still, everyone died--from the time of Adam to the time of Moses--even those who did not disobey an explicit commandment of God, as Adam did. Now Adam is a symbol, a representation of Christ, who was yet to come."

Romans 5:14, CSB: "Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who did not sin in the likeness of Adam's transgression. He is a type of the Coming One."

What does Romans 5:14 mean? [⇑ See verse text ⇑]

Adam's sin was different from the sin of all others who lived after him until the time of Moses and the law. As Paul wrote in the previous verse, sin is not counted against those who do not break God's law (or direct command). From the time of Adam until the time of Moses, God did not give many direct commands to humanity, at large. In that way, those people were not "lawbreakers." Still, sin existed. Every person was born into it, born with a sinful nature. People lied, stole, murdered, committed adultery, did what was wrong. Though they did not sin in a direct violation of God's written command, they still suffered the consequence of Adam's sin, the sin they were born into. They all died. Paul puts it poetically: Death reigned.

Adam's sin was unique, in that sense, since he did break God's direct command. Now, strangely, Paul describes Adam as a "type" of the one who was to come, meaning Jesus. He does not mean that Adam and Jesus shared Christ-like qualities. Paul will clarify this comparison in the following verses.