Genesis 25:14

ESV Mishma, Dumah, Massa,
NIV Mishma, Dumah, Massa,
NASB Mishma, Dumah, Massa,
CSB Mishma, Dumah, Massa,
NLT Mishma, Dumah, Massa,
KJV And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa,
NKJV Mishma, Dumah, Massa,

What does Genesis 25:14 mean?

The twelve sons of Ishmael, named in order of birth, are given in Genesis 25:13–15. God had promised Ishmael's mother, Hagar, that Ishmael would father "twelve princes." The prediction suggested that each would become the head of his own clan or tribe (Genesis 17:20). As expected, people groups carrying the names of Ishmael's descendants would become influential; in the Middle East and in Israel's history.

This verse continues the list with Mishma, Dumah, and Massa. The descendants of Dumah are apparently referenced in an oracle in Isaiah 21:11–12.
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