Genesis 25:14 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓]

Genesis 25:14, NIV: "Mishma, Dumah, Massa,"

Genesis 25:14, ESV: "Mishma, Dumah, Massa,"

Genesis 25:14, KJV: "And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa,"

Genesis 25:14, NASB: "Mishma, Dumah, Massa,"

Genesis 25:14, NLT: "Mishma, Dumah, Massa,"

Genesis 25:14, CSB: "Mishma, Dumah, Massa,"

What does Genesis 25:14 mean? [⇑ See verse text ⇑]

The twelve sons of Ishmael, named in order of birth, are given in Genesis 25:13–15. God had promised Ishmael's mother, Hagar, that Ishmael would father "twelve princes." The prediction suggested that each would become the head of his own clan or tribe (Genesis 17:20). As expected, people groups carrying the names of Ishmael's descendants would become influential; in the Middle East and in Israel's history.

This verse continues the list with Mishma, Dumah, and Massa. The descendants of Dumah are apparently referenced in an oracle in Isaiah 21:11–12.