Ephesians 2:12 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓]

Ephesians 2:12, NIV: remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world.

Ephesians 2:12, ESV: remember that you were at that time separated from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.

Ephesians 2:12, KJV: That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:

Ephesians 2:12, NASB: remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the people of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world.

Ephesians 2:12, NLT: In those days you were living apart from Christ. You were excluded from citizenship among the people of Israel, and you did not know the covenant promises God had made to them. You lived in this world without God and without hope.

Ephesians 2:12, CSB: At that time you were without Christ, excluded from the citizenship of Israel, and foreigners to the covenants of promise, without hope and without God in the world.

What does Ephesians 2:12 mean? [⇑ See verse text ⇑]

Paul provides five negative aspects of the lives of his readers prior to knowing Christ:

First, is separation; the relationship and love they now knew in their hearts did not previously exist. Second, they had no connection with the people of God and were considered foreigners by the Jewish people. Third, they were not part of God's promises. God's Old Testament covenants were made with the Jewish people, not the Gentiles. They were left out of these previous arrangements. Fourth, they had "no hope" prior to knowing Christ. Paul uses this phrase in one other place, describing how when believers die the surviving believers do "not grieve as others who have no hope" (1 Thessalonians 4:13). Fifth, they were "without God in the world."

These five traits, along with the conditions mentioned in verse 11, offer a list of reasons which had excluded Paul's readers from God's family prior to salvation. These negatives will be contrasted with God's positive provisions through Jesus, beginning in the next verse.