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Daniel 1:7

ESV And the chief of the eunuchs gave them names: Daniel he called Belteshazzar, Hananiah he called Shadrach, Mishael he called Meshach, and Azariah he called Abednego.
NIV The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.
NASB Then the commander of the officials assigned new names to them; and to Daniel he assigned the name Belteshazzar, to Hananiah Shadrach, to Mishael Meshach, and to Azariah Abed-nego.
CSB The chief eunuch gave them names; he gave the name Belteshazzar to Daniel, Shadrach to Hananiah, Meshach to Mishael, and Abednego to Azariah.
NLT The chief of staff renamed them with these Babylonian names: Daniel was called Belteshazzar. Hananiah was called Shadrach. Mishael was called Meshach. Azariah was called Abednego.
KJV Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abednego.

What does Daniel 1:7 mean?

When Babylon conquered Israel, the best and brightest children of royal families were set aside for a special purpose. They were not merely trophies. Rather, they were placed into a reeducation program (Daniel 1:1–4). Nebuchadnezzar probably intended to lure Israel's youths to his side, making them more effective at controlling the conquered Jewish population. This plan included training in Babylonian language, religion, and culture, and living in relative luxury (Daniel 1:5). It also meant being given new names, replacing references to the God of Israel (Daniel 1:6) with mentions of Babylonian idols.

Daniel, or Daniye'l, whose name means "God is my judge," was assigned the Babylonian name Beltasha'tstsar, or "Belteshazzar." This seems to be an appeal for protection to the god Bel. The name may also mean "Lord of the straightened's treasure."

Hananiah, or Chananyah, whose name means "Yahweh has favored," was given the name Sadrak', or "Shadrach." This is most likely a reference to the Babylonian deity Marduk, or "decree of the moon-god" or "I fear a god."

Mishael, or Miysha'el, whose name means "who is what God is?" was renamed Meyshak, or "Meshach." This new title is translated as "guest of a king," or perhaps "I am humble before a god."

Azariah, or 'Azaryah, whose name means "Yahweh has helped" was called 'Abed Nagow, or "Abed-nego." His altered name means "servant of Nebo," probably referring to the son of the Babylonian god Marduk.

Scripture does not say how other Israelite captives responded to their new positions. These four, however, resisted the pressure to abandon their faith. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego will become famous for their refusal to worship idols, even at the risk of their lives (Daniel 3). Daniel will be renowned for righteousness despite living under several pagan regimes (Ezekiel 14:14, 20; Daniel 6).
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