Romans 1:4 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓]

Romans 1:4, NIV: "and who through the Spirit of holiness was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord."

Romans 1:4, ESV: "and was declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,"

Romans 1:4, KJV: "And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:"

Romans 1:4, NASB: "who was declared the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,"

Romans 1:4, NLT: "and he was shown to be the Son of God when he was raised from the dead by the power of the Holy Spirit. He is Jesus Christ our Lord."

Romans 1:4, CSB: "and was appointed to be the powerful Son of God according to the Spirit of holiness by the resurrection of the dead."

What does Romans 1:4 mean? [⇑ See verse text ⇑]

Paul, having just begun the greeting to his letter, is already sidetracked by proclaiming the gospel to his readers. He has said Jesus Christ is the focus of the long-ago promised gospel—the "good news"—from God.

Jesus, as a human being "according to the flesh" (Romans 1:3), was a direct descendant of King David. Now Paul adds that the resurrection of Jesus from death to life proves that He was more than just a man. That event, predicted by Jesus Himself (Matthew 28:6), established that He was in fact the Son of God. It was a declaration by the power of the Holy Spirit of God—"the Spirit of holiness"—that Jesus, as God's eternal Son, was in fact God. Who else could have raised Jesus from the dead but God's own powerful Spirit?

Already in verse 4, Paul has established the truth that Jesus was fully human and also fully God. As God's Son, Christ has reigned with God the Father forever. It is only right, then, that we should bow to Him as "Jesus Christ our Lord."