Acts 2:35 Parallel Verses [⇓ See commentary ⇓]

Acts 2:35, NIV: until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.''

Acts 2:35, ESV: until I make your enemies your footstool.”’

Acts 2:35, KJV: Until I make thy foes thy footstool.


Acts 2:35, NLT: until I humble your enemies, making them a footstool under your feet.''

Acts 2:35, CSB: until I make your enemies your footstool.'

What does Acts 2:35 mean? [⇑ See verse text ⇑]

Peter is finishing his explanation about how David's words in Psalm 110:1 refer to Jesus, not David himself. Peter has already shown how the first two lines, "The Lord said to my Lord, 'Sit at my right hand,'" can't refer to David. David is calling the Messiah his "Lord," and David certainly didn't rise from the dead, ascend to heaven, and sit at God's right hand.

It is true that David had many military battles and attributed his victories to God (see Psalm 18), but the enemies referred to in Psalm 110:1, quoted here in Acts 2:35, are Jesus' enemies: including the Antichrist, Satan, sin, and the ultimate enemy, which is death (1 Corinthians 15:26). The suggestion that Jesus waits for God to defeat His enemies is an interesting one. The author of Hebrews reaffirms it in Hebrews 10:12–13. In Philippians 2:1–9, Paul explains that Jesus voluntarily submitted Himself to God and took on the role of a servant. In return, God has exalted Jesus' name so that "at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father" (Philippians 2:10–11).

When will this ultimate victory happen? We don't know. When Jesus was on earth, while He was subduing the power of His deity, even He didn't know (Mark 13:32). Moments before He ascended into heaven, the disciples asked again when He would come and save Israel (Acts 1:6). Jesus responded, "It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority" (Acts 1:7).

"Footstool" is from the Greek root word hypopodion. This is like calling something an "underfoot" in English. In common practice, it means a stool or resting place for one's feet. As a metaphor, it refers to the tradition of military leaders to place their feet on the necks of those they had conquered. Jesus' enemies will be completely vulnerable and in complete subjection to Him. We don't know when, but we do know at least one thing: God will do it, not us (John 18:36).