Acts 11:3

ESV “You went to uncircumcised men and ate with them.”
NIV and said, 'You went into the house of uncircumcised men and ate with them.'
NASB saying, 'You went to uncircumcised men and ate with them.'
CSB saying, "You went to uncircumcised men and ate with them."
NLT You entered the home of Gentiles and even ate with them!' they said.
KJV Saying, Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with them.

What does Acts 11:3 mean?

Peter has returned to Jerusalem after witnessing the Holy Spirit fall on a houseful of Gentiles (Acts 10:44–48). The scene is reminiscent of Pentecostwhen the Holy Spirit first fell on Peter and dozens of other Jesus-followers (Acts 2:1–4). Now, Peter has returned to the church in Jerusalem where he is being accosted for his actions.

By this time, Jews of every spiritual variety have accepted that Jesus is the Messiah. They believe He brings forgiveness of sin and reconciliation with God. Some of these converts are still very legalistic Jews, often referred to as "the circumcision party" (Acts 11:2). They may be former Pharisees. They don't necessarily have a problem with Gentiles receiving the Holy Spirit, but they do object to the idea of Gentiles remaining Gentiles, rather than also converting to Judaism. Specifically, they want Gentiles to be circumcised and to follow a kosher diet.

Peter is familiar with these beliefs: he held them as well until very recently (Acts 10). God sent him a vision of different types of animals—some allowed to be consumed as food by the Mosaic law and some not—as a metaphor to teach him that Gentiles are welcome to the church as they are. The moment the vision ended, three Gentiles arrived where he was staying and invited him to visit a Roman centurion. Peter greeted the centurion with the somewhat ungracious explanation: "You yourselves know how unlawful it is for a Jew to associate with or to visit anyone of another nation, but God has shown me that I should not call any person common or unclean" (Acts 10:28).

In Judaism, what you eat, how you eat, and who you eat with have serious theological implications. The Pharisees were horrified when Jesus ate with tax collectors and sinners (Mark 2:15–17) and when the disciples didn't ceremonially wash their hands before eating (Mark 7:1–5). Jesus explained that food goes in one end and out the other—it can't make you unclean. And He wasn't afraid to eat with those Judaism considered "unclean," like tax-collectors and other "sinners." It is the heart that determines if a person is unclean.

This discussion will continue. Paul and Barnabas—and Peter—will have to fight for the rights of the Gentiles to retain their non-Jewishness in a council in Jerusalem. The council will decide to ask Gentile believers to refrain from sexual immorality and food that has been sacrificed to idols or that still has blood (Acts 15:19–21). The decision has less to do with what is required of the Gentiles and more about what would bring enough peace that Jewish believers would feel comfortable eating with Gentile believers. Even Peter will forget that Jesus died to reconcile sinners to God, but also people to each other (Galatians 2:11–14; Romans 11).
What is the Gospel?
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