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1 Timothy 1:10

ESV the sexually immoral, men who practice homosexuality, enslavers, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine,
NIV for the sexually immoral, for those practicing homosexuality, for slave traders and liars and perjurers--and for whatever else is contrary to the sound doctrine
NASB for the sexually immoral, homosexuals, slave traders, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound teaching,
CSB for the sexually immoral and males who have sex with males, for slave traders, liars, perjurers, and for whatever else is contrary to the sound teaching
NLT The law is for people who are sexually immoral, or who practice homosexuality, or are slave traders, liars, promise breakers, or who do anything else that contradicts the wholesome teaching
KJV For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine;

What does 1 Timothy 1:10 mean?

Paul has been discussing how the Law is not meant to inspire legalism, but a recognition of our sin (1 Timothy 1:8). The prior verse began referring to those who break the Law, using the Ten Commandments as a framework. In this verse, Paul refers to two different kinds of sexual sin, aligned with the commandment "You shall not commit adultery" in Exodus 20:14.

The reference to homosexuality here is sometimes greeted with controversy. The word used by Paul appears to be one he coined, since it does not appear in Greek literature of the time. The word is arsenokoitais, and modern scholars have attempted to claim this word does not imply homosexuality, but rather generic "self abuse" or "abuse of others." In short, however, all evidence points to this being a reference to same-sex acts. In the Septuagint—a Greek translation of the Old Testament made by Hebrew scholars—Leviticus 20:13 uses the phrase kai hos an koimēthē meta arsenos koitēn gynaikos in prohibiting men from having sex with other men. Paul appears to be using that terminology here.

The next term, "enslavers," can refer to those involved in slave trading and fits Exodus 20:15, which teaches "You shall not steal." This is also an important word for understanding the biblical view on slavery. The term andrapodistais literally means "manstealers," which corresponds to the idea of kidnapping people in order to make them into slaves. This is what we would call "slavery" in modern times and it is clearly not biblical. The biblical "slavery" that appears to be condoned is more akin to being a servant.

The next two sins—lying and perjury—refer to various types of dishonesty, in violation of the ninth commandment (Exodus 20:16).

Paul also covers anything not specifically mentioned with his closing phrase in this verse. For example, he does not specifically mention the tenth commandment to not covet. "Sound doctrine" was mentioned by Paul in Titus 1:9 as well, giving the command for elders "… that he may be able to give instruction in sound doctrine and also to rebuke those who contradict it." Sound doctrine also reconnects this unit with the beginning of the section where Paul mentioned "different doctrine" in verse 3. Paul's list of sinful actions stands in contrast with sound doctrine. An interesting insight is that the opposite of sound doctrine is not just false teaching, but also sinful living.
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