What does Romans 16:20 mean?
ESV: The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
NIV: The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.
NASB: The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.
CSB: The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.
NLT: The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. May the grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.
KJV: And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
NKJV: And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
Verse Commentary:
Paul has been warning the Christians in Rome against false teachers who will come among them and offer a distorted view of Christian truth. He wants the believers to take this warning seriously. He has written that these false teachers do not serve Christ but their own appetites. They are liars looking to deceive naive or innocent Christians.

Now, in offering a hopeful truth, Paul seems to associate these false teachers with the father of lies, Satan himself (Galatians 1:8–9). Paul's final word on the subject seems to be that the God of peace will soon crush Satan under their feet. In other words, the work of Satan among them will ultimately fail and God will prevail through His people.

This verse echoes God's prophetic curse on the serpent in Genesis 3:15, "I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel."

This, then, is another reason to be wary of and resist the false teachers. Because they are associated with Satan in deception about the character of God and the gospel, they will ultimately be crushed. Those who follow them will be crushed, as well. Those who remain true to the God of peace, through faith in Christ, will stand forever.

Paul adds a quick blessing to the end of these instructions about false teachers, praying that the grace of Christ would be with them.
Verse Context:
Romans 16:17–23 includes last-minute instruction from Paul and greetings to those in Rome from the men with him in Corinth. Before closing the letter, Paul urgently warns his readers to be on the watch for false teachers; to avoid them. These people do not serve Christ and will deceive the naive with their distorted version of Christian truth, thus dividing the church. Paul sends greetings from Timothy, his longtime partner and student in ministry. Paul also sends greetings from his host in Corinth and several other friends and co-workers.
Chapter Summary:
The final chapter of Romans contains four sections intended to wrap up the letter. Paul commends the woman who will deliver the letter and then sends greetings to many people he knows in Rome. After last-minute, urgent instruction about false teachers, Paul sends greetings to the Roman Christians from those who are with him in Corinth, including Timothy. Paul closes out the letter with a hymn of praise to the God who has revealed to all the nations of the earth the gospel of salvation by faith in Christ Jesus.
Chapter Context:
Prior verses detailed Paul's plans to visit Rome and asked for prayer. This text concludes his letter to the Christians in Rome with four quick sections. He sends his greetings to a list of people he knows, or at least knows of, in Rome. Paul offers last-minute instruction about false teachers. He sends greetings from those who are with him in Corinth. And he closes out the letter with a beautiful praise hymn to the God who has revealed the mystery of the gospel of Jesus to all nations so that all might obey faith in Jesus.
Book Summary:
The book of Romans is the New Testament's longest, most structured, and most detailed description of Christian theology. Paul lays out the core of the gospel message: salvation by grace alone through faith alone. His intent is to explain the good news of Jesus Christ in accurate and clear terms. As part of this effort, Paul addresses the conflicts between law and grace, between Jews and Gentiles, and between sin and righteousness. As is common in his writing, Paul closes out his letter with a series of practical applications.
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