What does Romans 16:10 mean?
ESV: Greet Apelles, who is approved in Christ. Greet those who belong to the family of Aristobulus.
NIV: Greet Apelles, whose fidelity to Christ has stood the test. Greet those who belong to the household of Aristobulus.
NASB: Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus.
CSB: Greet Apelles, who is approved in Christ. Greet those who belong to the household of Aristobulus.
NLT: Greet Apelles, a good man whom Christ approves. And give my greetings to the believers from the household of Aristobulus.
KJV: Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobulus' household.
Verse Commentary:
Next on Paul's list for his Roman readers to greet is Apelles. We don't know anything about the man other than the fact that Paul describes him as approved in Christ. It may be that Apelles faced and overcame some challenge to his faith or Paul may mean that he is approved in the more general sense of the word as one who is respected by others (Romans 14:18).

Paul then wishes greetings for a group of people: those belonging to the household of a man named Aristobulus. Some scholars associate this person with the grandson of Herod the Great and the brother of King Herod Agrippa I. That Aristobulus died in A.D. 48, which would explain why Paul doesn't send greetings to him. Instead, he asks the Roman Christians to greet the family members (and likely the slaves) of his household, indicating that Paul knew some of them or that they were known to have come to faith in Christ.
Verse Context:
Romans 16:1–16 includes a list of two dozen or so people or groups that Paul wants his readers to greet for him in Rome. He begins by introducing them to Phoebe, the lady who will deliver this letter from him in Corinth. He asks them to greet his good friends and longtime partners in work and ministry Prisca—or Priscilla—and Aquila, who have returned to Rome from their time in Asia. Also on the list are close friends, slaves, royal families, and members of the various house churches that meet in Rome.
Chapter Summary:
The final chapter of Romans contains four sections intended to wrap up the letter. Paul commends the woman who will deliver the letter and then sends greetings to many people he knows in Rome. After last-minute, urgent instruction about false teachers, Paul sends greetings to the Roman Christians from those who are with him in Corinth, including Timothy. Paul closes out the letter with a hymn of praise to the God who has revealed to all the nations of the earth the gospel of salvation by faith in Christ Jesus.
Chapter Context:
Prior verses detailed Paul's plans to visit Rome and asked for prayer. This text concludes his letter to the Christians in Rome with four quick sections. He sends his greetings to a list of people he knows, or at least knows of, in Rome. Paul offers last-minute instruction about false teachers. He sends greetings from those who are with him in Corinth. And he closes out the letter with a beautiful praise hymn to the God who has revealed the mystery of the gospel of Jesus to all nations so that all might obey faith in Jesus.
Book Summary:
The book of Romans is the New Testament's longest, most structured, and most detailed description of Christian theology. Paul lays out the core of the gospel message: salvation by grace alone through faith alone. His intent is to explain the good news of Jesus Christ in accurate and clear terms. As part of this effort, Paul addresses the conflicts between law and grace, between Jews and Gentiles, and between sin and righteousness. As is common in his writing, Paul closes out his letter with a series of practical applications.
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