What does Romans 11:31 mean?
ESV: so they too have now been disobedient in order that by the mercy shown to you they also may now receive mercy.
NIV: so they too have now become disobedient in order that they too may now receive mercy as a result of God's mercy to you.
NASB: so these also now have been disobedient, that because of the mercy shown to you they also may now be shown mercy.
CSB: so they too have now disobeyed, resulting in mercy to you, so that they also may now receive mercy.
NLT: Now they are the rebels, and God’s mercy has come to you so that they, too, will share in God’s mercy.
KJV: Even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy.
Verse Commentary:
Paul is repeating one of the main themes of this chapter. He is saying once more to the Gentile Christians that, though they were disobedient and did not deserve it, they received mercy from God. This is true, in part, because of Israel's disobedience in rejecting Christ.

Does that mean that the Gentile Christians should be done with Israel? Should they mock Israel? Paul insists that they do not. Israel is in a season of disobedience to the gospel of Christ now, just as the Gentiles were—and for the most part still are—in a season of rejection of God. One day, however, Israel's people will see the mercy shown to the disobedient Gentiles, believe in Christ, and turn to receive mercy from God, as well.

Paul has described this as God making Israel jealous of His now special relationship with believing Gentiles in order to provoke some Jewish people to return to Him through faith in Christ and be included in that relationship (Romans 11:11–14).
Verse Context:
Romans 11:25–32 wraps up a long section about God's plans for His Israelite people. In short, He plans to remove the hardening of unbelief and renew His covenant with Israel. This will occur as many Jewish people come to faith in Christ at some future time. Israel remains deeply loved by God because of His irrevocable promises and calling for the patriarchs. In the end, God will show mercy to all Jews and Gentiles who come to Him through faith in Christ for the forgiveness of their sins.
Chapter Summary:
In Romans 11, Paul concludes his exploration of God's plan for His chosen people Israel. It's true that as a nation, Israel has rejected faith in Christ, but a remnant of Israelites has believed in Jesus. God has hardened the rest in unbelief, but will bring Israel back to faith when enough Gentiles have come to Him through Christ. Then many Israelites will trust in Christ, as well, and God will renew His covenant with His people. Paul concludes this section with a powerful poem or hymn about God's independence and how He is beyond our full comprehension.
Chapter Context:
Romans 11 concludes Paul's discussion about God's plan for the Israelites begun in Romans 9 and 10. Paul insists that, though Israel as a nation has rejected Christ, a remnant of Jewish Christians exists by God's grace. God has hardened the rest in their unbelief until enough Gentiles have come to Him through Christ. Then God will release Israel to believe in Christ and restore His covenant with her as many individual Jews come to faith in Christ, as well. Paul stands in awe of God's vast and unknowable mind and complete ownership of all things.
Book Summary:
The book of Romans is the New Testament's longest, most structured, and most detailed description of Christian theology. Paul lays out the core of the gospel message: salvation by grace alone through faith alone. His intent is to explain the good news of Jesus Christ in accurate and clear terms. As part of this effort, Paul addresses the conflicts between law and grace, between Jews and Gentiles, and between sin and righteousness. As is common in his writing, Paul closes out his letter with a series of practical applications.
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