What does Romans 11:30 mean?
ESV: For just as you were at one time disobedient to God but now have received mercy because of their disobedience,
NIV: Just as you who were at one time disobedient to God have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience,
NASB: For just as you once were disobedient to God, but now have been shown mercy because of their disobedience,
CSB: As you once disobeyed God but now have received mercy through their disobedience,
NLT: Once, you Gentiles were rebels against God, but when the people of Israel rebelled against him, God was merciful to you instead.
KJV: For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief:
NKJV: For as you were once disobedient to God, yet have now obtained mercy through their disobedience,
Verse Commentary:
Paul, still talking to the Gentile Christians, has warned them not to be arrogant and dismissive of the Jewish people who have rejected faith in Christ as the way to be righteous before God. He repeats a theme of this chapter, that the Gentiles were once disobedient to God, but those who trusted in Christ have received mercy from God. That mercy was available for a specific reason: Israel disobeyed the gospel; the people did not believe in Christ. God chose to apply His mercy to the Gentiles, in part, to encourage Israel to come back to God (Romans 11:11–14). Gentiles are no better than Jews, since both people have demonstrated disobedience to God.

Paul continues to urge the Gentile Christians to remain respectful of the Israelites; some of the Israelites will eventually share eternity with them as brothers and sisters in Christ. All who are saved are saved for the same reason: God's merciful and undeserved grace (Romans 3:10; 3:23).
Verse Context:
Romans 11:25–32 wraps up a long section about God's plans for His Israelite people. In short, He plans to remove the hardening of unbelief and renew His covenant with Israel. This will occur as many Jewish people come to faith in Christ at some future time. Israel remains deeply loved by God because of His irrevocable promises and calling for the patriarchs. In the end, God will show mercy to all Jews and Gentiles who come to Him through faith in Christ for the forgiveness of their sins.
Chapter Summary:
In Romans 11, Paul concludes his exploration of God's plan for His chosen people Israel. It's true that as a nation, Israel has rejected faith in Christ, but a remnant of Israelites has believed in Jesus. God has hardened the rest in unbelief, but will bring Israel back to faith when enough Gentiles have come to Him through Christ. Then many Israelites will trust in Christ, as well, and God will renew His covenant with His people. Paul concludes this section with a powerful poem or hymn about God's independence and how He is beyond our full comprehension.
Chapter Context:
Romans 11 concludes Paul's discussion about God's plan for the Israelites begun in Romans 9 and 10. Paul insists that, though Israel as a nation has rejected Christ, a remnant of Jewish Christians exists by God's grace. God has hardened the rest in their unbelief until enough Gentiles have come to Him through Christ. Then God will release Israel to believe in Christ and restore His covenant with her as many individual Jews come to faith in Christ, as well. Paul stands in awe of God's vast and unknowable mind and complete ownership of all things.
Book Summary:
The book of Romans is the New Testament's longest, most structured, and most detailed description of Christian theology. Paul lays out the core of the gospel message: salvation by grace alone through faith alone. His intent is to explain the good news of Jesus Christ in accurate and clear terms. As part of this effort, Paul addresses the conflicts between law and grace, between Jews and Gentiles, and between sin and righteousness. As is common in his writing, Paul closes out his letter with a series of practical applications.
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