What does Romans 11:27 mean?
ESV: "and this will be my covenant with them when I take away their sins."
NIV: And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins."
CSB: And this will be my covenant with them when I take away their sins.
NLT: And this is my covenant with them, that I will take away their sins.'
KJV: For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.
NKJV: For this is My covenant with them, When I take away their sins.”
Verse Commentary:
Paul has stated flatly that when the "fullness" of the Gentiles has come to God through faith in Christ, God will remove the hardness of heart from Israel. At that time, all Israel will be saved. That verse (Romans 11:26) presents a series of challenges in interpretation.

Paul then quotes from Isaiah 59:20–21 and Isaiah 27:9 to support this idea. In the previous verse, he adjusted Isaiah's words about the arrival of a Deliverer from Zion, likely referring to the Second Coming of Christ. This Deliver will banish sin and ungodliness from Jacob, meaning Israel (Genesis 32:28). Isaiah writes that this "Redeemer" will come to those Israelites who turn from transgression (Isaiah 59:20).

Now Paul uses phrases from both Isaiah 59:21 and 27:9 to quote God as declaring, or renewing, His covenant with Israel at that time when He removes their sin. In the context of Romans 11, the sin of the Israelites will be removed when they obey the gospel and trust in Christ for their salvation.
Verse Context:
Romans 11:25–32 wraps up a long section about God's plans for His Israelite people. In short, He plans to remove the hardening of unbelief and renew His covenant with Israel. This will occur as many Jewish people come to faith in Christ at some future time. Israel remains deeply loved by God because of His irrevocable promises and calling for the patriarchs. In the end, God will show mercy to all Jews and Gentiles who come to Him through faith in Christ for the forgiveness of their sins.
Chapter Summary:
In Romans 11, Paul concludes his exploration of God's plan for His chosen people Israel. It's true that as a nation, Israel has rejected faith in Christ, but a remnant of Israelites has believed in Jesus. God has hardened the rest in unbelief, but will bring Israel back to faith when enough Gentiles have come to Him through Christ. Then many Israelites will trust in Christ, as well, and God will renew His covenant with His people. Paul concludes this section with a powerful poem or hymn about God's independence and how He is beyond our full comprehension.
Chapter Context:
Romans 11 concludes Paul's discussion about God's plan for the Israelites begun in Romans 9 and 10. Paul insists that, though Israel as a nation has rejected Christ, a remnant of Jewish Christians exists by God's grace. God has hardened the rest in their unbelief until enough Gentiles have come to Him through Christ. Then God will release Israel to believe in Christ and restore His covenant with her as many individual Jews come to faith in Christ, as well. Paul stands in awe of God's vast and unknowable mind and complete ownership of all things.
Book Summary:
The book of Romans is the New Testament's longest, most structured, and most detailed description of Christian theology. Paul lays out the core of the gospel message: salvation by grace alone through faith alone. His intent is to explain the good news of Jesus Christ in accurate and clear terms. As part of this effort, Paul addresses the conflicts between law and grace, between Jews and Gentiles, and between sin and righteousness. As is common in his writing, Paul closes out his letter with a series of practical applications.
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