What does Psalm 34:19 mean?
ESV: Many are the afflictions of the righteous, but the LORD delivers him out of them all.
NIV: The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all;
NASB: The afflictions of the righteous are many, But the Lord rescues him from them all.
CSB: One who is righteous has many adversities, but the Lord rescues him from them all.
NLT: The righteous person faces many troubles, but the Lord comes to the rescue each time.
KJV: Many are the afflictions of the righteous: but the LORD delivereth him out of them all.
NKJV: Many are the afflictions of the righteous, But the Lord delivers him out of them all.
Verse Commentary:
In addition to David's experiences of being rescued by God, other incidents in biblical history testify to the Lord's deliverance of His people. The case of Daniel's three friends being cast into a white-hot furnace because of their allegiance to God is one such incident (Daniel 3). Another is the experience of Daniel being left in a den of hungry lions because of faithfulness in praying only to the true God. God miraculously kept him safe in the lions' den and delivered him out of it (Daniel 6).

Biblical writers like David, who extoll the protection and provision of God, also acknowledge that those who faithfully follow God still encounter significant challenges. Following godly wisdom helps us avoid the pitfalls that come with sin (Psalm 34:11–14). But even those who love God can suffer; in fact, some godly people suffer because of their faithfulness to the Lord (John 16:1–4). That was the case with Daniel and New Testament figures such as Paul (2 Corinthians 11:23–28). God's rescue, in those situations, can be immediate or physical. In other cases, it can be by giving believers the strength to endure the trial (Romans 8:28–30; John 16:33).

Isaiah 51:7 offers encouragement from the Lord to the righteous. He calls upon them to listen to Him and "fear not the reproach of man, nor be dismayed at their revilings." He assures His people that the wicked will be destroyed, whereas His righteousness will last forever, and His salvation will be to all generations (Isaiah 51:8).
Verse Context:
Psalm 34:15–22 contrasts what the Lord does for those who fear Him against what happens to the wicked. God watches over the righteous and answers their cry for help. He delivers the righteous from their troubles and draws near to them. He protects the righteous and redeems them. On the other hand, He opposes the wicked and condemns them. While David certainly experienced victories in his life, he also understood that God's love and provision have an eternal perspective (Romans 8:28–30). Verse 20 includes a reference which the Gospel of John ties to Jesus' role as Messiah.
Chapter Summary:
David praises the Lord for delivering him from the Philistines, and he invites others to join him in singing joyfully to the Lord. He extols the virtue of fearing the Lord and remembering His goodness. He encourages the Lord's people to respect God and offers wisdom leading to a long and blessed life. At the end of this psalm David emphasizes the distinction the Lord draws between the wicked and the righteous. He cares for the righteous and will not condemn them, but He condemns the wicked.
Chapter Context:
David composed this psalm after he escaped from the Philistines at Gath. He accomplished this by feigning insanity and later sheltered in the cave of Adullum. This experience is recorded in 1 Samuel 21:10—22:1. Like Psalm 25, this is an acrostic psalm. Every verse except the final one begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. First Peter 2:3 alludes to the psalm's eighth verse, and 1 Peter 3:10–12 quotes verses 12–16 of Psalm 34. John 19:36 refers to Psalm 34:20.
Book Summary:
The book of Psalms is composed of individual songs, hymns, or poems, each of which is a ''Psalm'' in and of itself. These works contain a wide variety of themes. Some Psalms focus on praising and worshipping God. Others cry out in anguish over the pain of life. Still other Psalms look forward to the coming of the Messiah. While some Psalms are related, each has its own historical and biblical context.
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