What does Psalm 103:19 mean?
ESV: The LORD has established his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all.
NIV: The LORD has established his throne in heaven, and his kingdom rules over all.
NASB: The Lord has established His throne in the heavens, And His sovereignty rules over all.
CSB: The Lord has established his throne in heaven, and his kingdom rules over all.
NLT: The Lord has made the heavens his throne; from there he rules over everything.
KJV: The LORD hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all.
NKJV: The Lord has established His throne in heaven, And His kingdom rules over all.
Verse Commentary:
In this verse David declares the idea of God's sovereignty. He has fixed His throne in the heavens and His rule extends to everyone and everything. Lucifer, the Devil, tried and failed to topple the Lord from His throne (Isaiah 14:12–15). Throughout history evil men have followed Lucifer's example, but they, too, have learned the hard way that the Lord is sovereign and invincible. His throne is firmly fixed!

At the end of human history multitudes of rebellious human beings will follow the Devil in a last-ditch effort to overthrow God's rule, but they will not succeed. God will rain fire upon them and consume them, and He will throw the Devil into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:7–10). Unbelievers may be unwilling to acknowledge God, either in submission or by denying His existence. However, James tells us "even the demons believe—and shudder" (James 2:19). God's eternal rule over all should cause His enemies to shudder, but it should bring comfort to believers. He has the will and the power to orchestrate even our trials to accomplish His good work in our lives (Romans 8:28).
Verse Context:
Psalm 103:6–19 reflects on the Lord's benefits to Israel. Deuteronomy 6:1–15 contains the Lord's promise to bless the people of Israel if they would obey him. Psalm 105 and 106 are companion psalms that stress the Lord's goodness to Israel.
Chapter Summary:
Psalm 103 praises God for what He has done. This includes celebration of His personal influence, as well as the way God has blessed the nation of Israel. David encourages praises from himself, from the people in general, and even from the angels and hosts of heaven.
Chapter Context:
Psalm 103 is one of four psalms which complete the fourth division of the book of Psalms (Psalms 90—106). These four psalms ascribe praise to the Lord. Psalm 103 was written by David and expresses his gratitude to the Lord for all His benefits. First Thessalonians 5:18 conveys the same theme of thanksgiving by exhorting believers to ''give thanks in all circumstances.''
Book Summary:
The book of Psalms is composed of individual songs, hymns, or poems, each of which is a ''Psalm'' in and of itself. These works contain a wide variety of themes. Some Psalms focus on praising and worshipping God. Others cry out in anguish over the pain of life. Still other Psalms look forward to the coming of the Messiah. While some Psalms are related, each has its own historical and biblical context.
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