What does Matthew 12:2 mean?
ESV: But when the Pharisees saw it, they said to him, “Look, your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath.”
NIV: When the Pharisees saw this, they said to him, 'Look! Your disciples are doing what is unlawful on the Sabbath.'
NASB: Now when the Pharisees saw this, they said to Him, 'Look, Your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on a Sabbath!'
CSB: When the Pharisees saw this, they said to him, "See, your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath."
NLT: But some Pharisees saw them do it and protested, 'Look, your disciples are breaking the law by harvesting grain on the Sabbath.'
KJV: But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day.
NKJV: And when the Pharisees saw it, they said to Him, “Look, Your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath!”
Verse Commentary:
Jesus and His disciples are walking through a field of grain. The hungry disciples begin to pluck heads from the grain by hand and eat them. This was not theft; it was allowed by the law of Moses (Deuteronomy 23:24–25). This does not spare them from the wrath of the Pharisees.

The Pharisees were a group of religious leaders in Israel with great authority over the daily lives of the people. They were famous for their strict interpretation of the Law. In order to avoid breaking the laws given by Moses, their scholars created a series of additional rules and interpretations. Jesus was probably referring to those added-on restrictions when He spoke to those who were weary and weighed down in the previous verses (Matthew 11:28–30).

It's not clear how these Pharisees saw Jesus' disciples plucking and eating heads of grain while walking through a field. It might have been pure chance or they may have been following Jesus in hopes of catching Him doing something unlawful. Either way, they seem to see this moment as an opportunity.

The Pharisees accuse Jesus by saying His disciples were doing something unlawful: working on the Sabbath. The fourth of the ten commandments given to Moses demanded that the people of Israel "shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates. 11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy" (Exodus 20:10–11).

According to the ultra-legalistic view of the Pharisees, plucking the heads from grain in order to eat them qualified as work. In fact, they defined it as "reaping" a crop, which was one of the 39 forms of work specifically declared off limits by the religious leaders who interpreted the Jewish Scriptures.

To modern readers, this level of paranoia sounds laughable. On one hand, however, religious leaders such as the scribes and Pharisees had a difficult job: figuring out exactly how to apply the commands of the law of Moses. On the other hand, their attempts to interpret the law gradually became a form of law, itself. Over time, their rules became more restrictive, and their interpretations were elevated to the same authority as the literal words of God. Often, this came at great cost to the spirit of the original text. This was a major point of Jesus' criticism of these men.
Verse Context:
Matthew 12:1–8 finds Jesus' hungry disciples breaking the heads off grain and eating as they walk through a field with Him on the way to the synagogue. Some Pharisees tell Jesus this is unlawful. In their interpretation, this is a violation of the command not to work on the Sabbath. Jesus counters the accusation with a series of questions, showing their manmade restriction cannot stand. Their legalistic, expanded view doesn't reflect God's intended meaning of the Sabbath. The Pharisees must learn that God desires mercy, not sacrifice. He declares Himself greater than the temple, and Lord of the Sabbath.
Chapter Summary:
Matthew 12 features confrontations between the Pharisees and Jesus over several issues. Among these are working on the Sabbath, healing on the Sabbath, and the source of His power to cast out demons. Jesus counters each argument and rebukes the Pharisees sharply for their obstinate unbelief. He even notes that those who maliciously ascribe His miracles to demons are unforgivable. He warns them, and the rest of their current generation, about the judgment to come. Jesus calls the Pharisees a brood of vipers and rejects their demand for another miracle. All they'll be promised is the sign of Jonah. The Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth for three days. Jesus also states that all who do His Father's will are His family.
Chapter Context:
Matthew 11 depicted Jesus preaching and teaching after sending out His chosen disciples in pairs in chapter 10. Chapter 12 immediately picks up with more confrontation with the Pharisees. Jesus responds to those criticisms and rebukes their evil hearts as the source of their evil words. In the following chapter, Matthew will shift His focus onto Jesus' parables.
Book Summary:
The Gospel of Matthew clearly shows the influence of its writer's background, and his effort to reach a specific audience. Matthew was one of Jesus' twelve disciples, a Jewish man, and a former tax collector. This profession would have required literacy, and Matthew may have transcribed some of Jesus' words as they were spoken. This book is filled with references to the Old Testament, demonstrating to Israel that Jesus is the Promised One. Matthew also includes many references to coins, likely due to his former profession. Matthew records extensive accounts of Jesus' teaching, more than the other three Gospels.
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