What does Matthew 10:4 mean?
ESV: Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
NIV: Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
NASB: Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, the one who also betrayed Him.
CSB: Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.
NLT: Simon (the zealot ), Judas Iscariot (who later betrayed him).
KJV: Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.
NKJV: Simon the Cananite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him.
Verse Commentary:
Matthew concludes his list of the Twelve disciples who became known as the apostles of Jesus. This is the group of men Jesus is instructing in preparation to send them out into Israel to represent Him to the people (Matthew 10:1). They will preach the gospel, the good news, of the kingdom of heaven. Jesus has also given them the authority and power to cast out demons and heal the sick.

Simon the Zealot is listed is some translations as Simon the Cananaean. This is an Aramaic term adapted into Greek as Kananaios. The word refers to a specific group within Jewish culture, known as the Zealots. This was an aggressive, violence-minded bloc plotting to overthrow Rome. Just as Matthew was once a tax collector (Matthew 9:9), Simon was once a radical revolutionary before beginning to follow Jesus.

The last of the Twelve mentioned is Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Jesus (Matthew 26:47–50). "Iscariot" might mean "from Kerioth," a town in Judah.
Verse Context:
Matthew 10:1–4 lists the twelve apostles, Jesus' core group of hand-picked followers. These men are often collectively referred to as "the Twelve." Jesus gives them His own authority to cast out unclean spirits and to heal every disease and affliction, the same miracles Jesus Himself has been doing up to this point. The apostles include brothers Peter and Andrew, brothers James and John, along with Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, another James, Thaddaeus, Simon, and Judas Iscariot. Judas is the one who will betray Jesus after the Last Supper.
Chapter Summary:
Jesus gives His authority over disease, demons, and even death to His twelve hand-picked apostles. He gives them instructions in preparation both for a short-term trip to the towns of Galilee and their ministry after He has left the earth. First, they will preach His message of the kingdom in Israelite towns as they heal and cast out demons to demonstrate His power. Later, they will suffer great persecution as they represent Him before both Jews and Gentiles. They should not be afraid, though, and trust their Father to be with them and to reward them.
Chapter Context:
Jesus has recently expressed compassion for the people of Israel, who are spiritually lost. Matthew 10 is a record of Jesus' instructions to His twelve core apostles, as He sends them on a short-term trip to the towns of Galilee. He also includes warnings and encouragements about the persecution they will eventually experience. In chapter 11, Jesus will continue to proclaim truth to the people of Israel, leading to further conflict with local religious leaders.
Book Summary:
The Gospel of Matthew clearly shows the influence of its writer's background, and his effort to reach a specific audience. Matthew was one of Jesus' twelve disciples, a Jewish man, and a former tax collector. This profession would have required literacy, and Matthew may have transcribed some of Jesus' words as they were spoken. This book is filled with references to the Old Testament, demonstrating to Israel that Jesus is the Promised One. Matthew also includes many references to coins, likely due to his former profession. Matthew records extensive accounts of Jesus' teaching, more than the other three Gospels.
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