What does Matthew 10:30 mean?
ESV: But even the hairs of your head are all numbered.
NIV: And even the very hairs of your head are all numbered.
NASB: But even the hairs of your head are all counted.
CSB: But even the hairs of your head have all been counted.
NLT: And the very hairs on your head are all numbered.
KJV: But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.
NKJV: But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.
Verse Commentary:
As part of preparing them for a short-term mission (Matthew 10:5–8), Jesus has warned His disciples about the persecution they will experience as they represent Him in the world (Matthew 10:22–27). He has also told them not to be afraid—or, at least, to fear God more than those who can only kill their bodies. God can destroy both body and soul in hell (Matthew 10:28). He quickly added, however, that God is their Father, and He cares about all He has created. He knows even when a single sparrow falls (Matthew 10:29).

Now Jesus declares that their Father God even knows the number of hairs on each of their heads. God cares about the smallest details of our lives. Contrary to what we sometimes imagine, God is not only concerned with the big issues we face or our victories and failures. He is aware of and involved with the tiniest matters of His children's lives. This does not mean God will always, in all cases, prevent harm or hardship from coming to faithful believers (Matthew 5:3–12). It does mean that we should not interpret difficult times as abandonment by God.

Jesus completes the comparison between God's children and sparrows in the following verse.
Verse Context:
Matthew 10:26–33 continues Jesus' encouragement, as He sends the Twelve out with His authority. He commands the apostles to proclaim far and wide what He whispers to them now. Persecution will come to them, but they must not be afraid. Their enemies can only kill their bodies. They should fear God, instead, and understand that their Father cares for them. He will see if they fall. Jesus declares that He, too, will acknowledge to His Father everyone who acknowledges Him to others. Those who deny His identity as God's Son, however, He will also deny.
Chapter Summary:
Jesus gives His authority over disease, demons, and even death to His twelve hand-picked apostles. He gives them instructions in preparation both for a short-term trip to the towns of Galilee and their ministry after He has left the earth. First, they will preach His message of the kingdom in Israelite towns as they heal and cast out demons to demonstrate His power. Later, they will suffer great persecution as they represent Him before both Jews and Gentiles. They should not be afraid, though, and trust their Father to be with them and to reward them.
Chapter Context:
Jesus has recently expressed compassion for the people of Israel, who are spiritually lost. Matthew 10 is a record of Jesus' instructions to His twelve core apostles, as He sends them on a short-term trip to the towns of Galilee. He also includes warnings and encouragements about the persecution they will eventually experience. In chapter 11, Jesus will continue to proclaim truth to the people of Israel, leading to further conflict with local religious leaders.
Book Summary:
The Gospel of Matthew clearly shows the influence of its writer's background, and his effort to reach a specific audience. Matthew was one of Jesus' twelve disciples, a Jewish man, and a former tax collector. This profession would have required literacy, and Matthew may have transcribed some of Jesus' words as they were spoken. This book is filled with references to the Old Testament, demonstrating to Israel that Jesus is the Promised One. Matthew also includes many references to coins, likely due to his former profession. Matthew records extensive accounts of Jesus' teaching, more than the other three Gospels.
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