What does Matthew 10:2 mean?
ESV: The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;
NIV: These are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon (who is called Peter) and his brother Andrew; James son of Zebedee, and his brother John;
NASB: Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and his brother Andrew; and James the son of Zebedee, and his brother John;
CSB: These are the names of the twelve apostles: First, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;
NLT: Here are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon (also called Peter), then Andrew (Peter’s brother), James (son of Zebedee), John (James’s brother),
KJV: Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;
Verse Commentary:
For the first time in his book, Matthew is listing the twelve men Jesus has called out to be His special disciples. Jesus has given them authority, as His representatives, to operate with His power in casting out demons and healing every kind of disease and affliction (Matthew 10:1).

Now Matthew uses a different word to identity this group. He calls them "apostles," translated from the Greek word apolstolōn, which means a delegate or messenger. The term specifically implies someone "sent out" on behalf of their master. In the business world of the time, an apostolos might be given the authority to buy and sell on behalf of an owner or to give specific orders in his name. These apostles will do the same, casting out demons, healing the sick, and teaching about the kingdom of heaven—all in the name of Jesus. Their relationship to Jesus goes beyond that of mere disciples, or students, of the Master. Jesus has elevated this group as His official "sent ones."

Matthew lists each of the apostles by name. Similar lists are found in Mark 3:16–19, Luke 6:13–16, and Acts 1:13. The gospel of John describes Jesus calling many of these men, but he does not compile them into a list.

Matthew's list (Matthew 10:2–4) presents the Twelve in sets of two, probably because these were the pairs that were sent out by Jesus to the towns and cities of Israel. Matthew begins with the two sets of brothers: Simon, named Peter by Jesus (John 1:42), and his brother Andrew, followed by James and John, two sons of Zebedee.

Peter and Andrew were fishermen. They were in the act of fishing when Jesus called them (Mark 1:18–20). Peter would become the most vocal leader of the Twelve. Andrew had previously served as a disciple of John the Baptist before being called by Jesus (John 1:40).

Jesus called James and John to follow Him on the very same day as Peter and Andrew while they were in a fishing boat with their father Zebedee. They also followed immediately (Matthew 4:21–22). Peter, James, and John became Jesus' most-trusted inner circle, which might be why they are mentioned first in most lists of disciples.
Verse Context:
Matthew 10:1–4 lists the twelve apostles, Jesus' core group of hand-picked followers. These men are often collectively referred to as "the Twelve." Jesus gives them His own authority to cast out unclean spirits and to heal every disease and affliction, the same miracles Jesus Himself has been doing up to this point. The apostles include brothers Peter and Andrew, brothers James and John, along with Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, another James, Thaddaeus, Simon, and Judas Iscariot. Judas is the one who will betray Jesus after the Last Supper.
Chapter Summary:
Jesus gives His authority over disease, demons, and even death to His twelve hand-picked apostles. He gives them instructions in preparation both for a short-term trip to the towns of Galilee and their ministry after He has left the earth. First, they will preach His message of the kingdom in Israelite towns as they heal and cast out demons to demonstrate His power. Later, they will suffer great persecution as they represent Him before both Jews and Gentiles. They should not be afraid, though, and trust their Father to be with them and to reward them.
Chapter Context:
Jesus has recently expressed compassion for the people of Israel, who are spiritually lost. Matthew 10 is a record of Jesus' instructions to His twelve core apostles, as He sends them on a short-term trip to the towns of Galilee. He also includes warnings and encouragements about the persecution they will eventually experience. In chapter 11, Jesus will continue to proclaim truth to the people of Israel, leading to further conflict with local religious leaders.
Book Summary:
The Gospel of Matthew clearly shows the influence of its writer's background, and his effort to reach a specific audience. Matthew was one of Jesus' twelve disciples, a Jewish man, and a former tax collector. This profession would have required literacy, and Matthew may have transcribed some of Jesus' words as they were spoken. This book is filled with references to the Old Testament, demonstrating to Israel that Jesus is the Promised One. Matthew also includes many references to coins, likely due to his former profession. Matthew records extensive accounts of Jesus' teaching, more than the other three Gospels.
Accessed 4/17/2024 8:19:20 PM
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