What does Mark 2:10 mean?
ESV: But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins”—he said to the paralytic—
NIV: But I want you to know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins.' So he said to the man,
NASB: But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins'—He *said to the paralyzed man,
CSB: But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins"--he told the paralytic --
NLT: So I will prove to you that the Son of Man has the authority on earth to forgive sins.' Then Jesus turned to the paralyzed man and said,
KJV: But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of the palsy,)
NKJV: But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins”—He said to the paralytic,
Verse Commentary:
All of the things Jesus has done—heal people, expel demons, reveal hidden thoughts—must have been accomplished through the same power and the same authority: that of God. Isaiah 35:6 says that the Messiah will heal the lame. Psalm 139:1–2 says that God knows men's thoughts. As with the prophets of the Old Testament, these miracles should prove to the scribes that Jesus is working with God's authority because He has been granted God's authority. And if He has God's authority to heal, He has God's authority to speak for God. So when Jesus declares that the sins of the paralyzed man are forgiven, He is speaking for God.

The term "Son of Man" is from Daniel 7:13–14. In the end times, one "like the son of man" will be presented to the Ancient of Days and given everlasting dominion over the peoples and nations. Jesus expands this to say the Son of Man has authority to forgive sins. The scribes don't understand from Jesus' teaching and miracles, so Jesus spells it out for them: He is the Messiah.

"Son of Man" also identifies Jesus as human. He is fully God and fully man. Because of His humanity, He can be the sacrifice for our sins. Because of His deity, His character has the purity needed to make that sacrifice worthy. Jesus is called the "Son of Man" nearly ninety times in the New Testament, mostly by Himself, including in the prophecies that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected (Mark 8:31), and will rise from the dead (Mark 9:9). Mark uses the title fourteen times in his Gospel.

In the next verses, Jesus will use this combination of prophetic attributes to prove that He does, in fact, have the ability to forgive sins. When the lame man starts to walk, it's a physical sign of Jesus' power.
Verse Context:
Mark 2:1–12 records the first of five stories from the gospel of Mark which establish Jesus' claims to various spheres of authority. Jesus returns to Capernaum from His tour of Galilee, and the crowds regather. Here, Jesus declares that He has the power to forgive sins. A paralyzed man is brought into the crowded room through the roof. In response to the man's faith, Jesus declares his sins to be forgiven. When challenged by the scribes, Jesus proves His authority to forgive sins by healing the man. This event is also recorded in Matthew 9:2–8 and Luke 5:17–26.
Chapter Summary:
Mark chapter 2 follows the typical style of Mark's gospel with a rapid succession of stories. Jesus heals a man who cannot walk, but only after declaring the man's sins to have been forgiven. Jesus then calls Levi, one of the publically-reviled tax collectors, as a disciple and is seen eating with those the Pharisees view as ''sinners.'' Jesus then answers a challenge about fasting and defends His disciples when they violate the Pharisees' views on keeping the Sabbath. All of these events are met with some resistance from Jesus' critics. He responds in each case with a spiritual, reasonable defense.
Chapter Context:
In Mark chapter 1, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist then led into the wilderness by the Holy Spirit where He was tempted by Satan. He also taught and healed in Capernaum and throughout Galilee. In chapter 2, having returned to Capernaum, Jesus displays authority over four particular areas: the forgiveness of sins, social traditions, extra-biblical religious traditions, and the Sabbath. In response, the Pharisees—legalistic religious leaders—escalate their antagonism toward Him, culminating in a direct condemnation of His teachings. This sets the scene for Mark 3:6 when the religious and national leadership first get the idea to destroy Jesus.
Book Summary:
The Gospel of Mark emphasizes both Jesus' servanthood and His role as the promised Messiah: the Son of God. This is done through a concise, action-packed style. Mark provides relatively few details, instead focusing on actions and simple statements. This relates to the Gospel's authorship, which is believed to be based on the memories of the apostle Peter. These include many of Jesus' miracles, in contrast to other Gospels which include many more of Jesus' teachings and parables. Mark also makes frequent mention of Jesus' ministry being misunderstood by others.
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