What does Mark 14:19 mean?
ESV: They began to be sorrowful and to say to him one after another, “Is it I?”
NIV: They were saddened, and one by one they said to him, 'Surely you don't mean me?'
NASB: They began to be grieved and to say to Him one by one, 'Surely not I?'
CSB: They began to be distressed and to say to him one by one, "Surely not I? "
NLT: Greatly distressed, each one asked in turn, 'Am I the one?'
KJV: And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I?
NKJV: And they began to be sorrowful, and to say to Him one by one, “ Is it I?” And another said,Is it I?”
Verse Commentary:
This is an interesting reaction to Jesus' words. For three years, the disciples have dreamt about what Jesus' victory and kingdom will mean for them (Matthew 19:28; Mark 10:35–37). Even during this meal, they argue over who is greatest (Luke 22:24–30). And they reject or fail to understand Jesus' prophecies about a bleaker future (Mark 8:31–33; 9:30–32; 10:32–34).

Now, Jesus tells them that one of them will betray Him. With these words, the disciples' confidence is temporarily shattered. They trust Jesus' prediction. Their thoughts don't go to the power and authority they will lose; they are genuinely sorrowful and filled with a humble fear that is uncommon to them. Each disciple is looking into his heart to see if he has the capacity to betray Jesus, and each one is afraid he does.

Only one disciple will betray Jesus. Another will deny knowing Him (Mark 14:66–72), and ten more will abandon Him (Mark 14:50), with only John returning at some point to witness the crucifixion (John 19:26–27) It's important to see the distinctions because the three reactions express three different theological conditions.

Readers must understand that at this point, the disciples are under the old covenant and hold a Jewish theology of salvation. Their sense of atonement for sin is entirely tied to the sacrifices they perform. They do not yet have the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:1–4) which will seal them for eternity (Ephesians 1:13–14). The disciples will "scatter," from the Greek root word diaskorpizo. They will prove that in themselves, they are chaff, easily blown away by the wind.

Peter will "deny" Jesus, from the Greek root word aparneomai. He will choose not to identify with the Man he has followed and pledged himself to for the last three years.

Both infidelities are recoverable. After the resurrection, the disciples will gather to Jesus again, and Peter will spend the rest of his life strongly identifying with Christ.

Judas, however, "betrays" Jesus, from the Greek root word paradidomi. Like an apostate, he makes a conscious, permanent break in his association with Jesus. He appeared to be with Jesus and has heard what Jesus has to say, but he rejects Jesus' teaching and breaks away (1 John 2:19). Perhaps worst of all, when he realizes his mistake, instead of repenting he deliberately removes himself from any possibility of living to see God's forgiveness (Matthew 27:3–10).

It is good to do what the disciples do here: consider how we are betraying Jesus in our lives. But don't be like Judas. Remember that however we find we are betraying God, He will forgive us if we turn to Him.
Verse Context:
Mark 14:12–21 depicts the evening of 14 Nisan, when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Passover. This is an event Jesus has been earnestly looking forward to (Luke 22:15). After the traditional Jewish Passover, Jesus will transition into the new Lord's Supper. He will also identify Judas as His betrayer and dismiss him to coordinate His arrest with the priests (John 13:21–30). The other disciples are still curious as to when Jesus will liberate Israel. This account is also recorded in Matthew 26:17–25 and Luke 22:7–13, 21–23; John goes into great detail about other aspects, particularly about what Jesus teaches, in John 13—17.
Chapter Summary:
Jesus is anointed in a symbolic anticipation of His death. Judas decides to secretly cooperate with local religious leaders to arrest Jesus in secret. During the Passover meal, Jesus predicts His betrayal by Judas, and Peter's denial. He also institutes the Lord's Supper, also known as communion. After praying on the Mount of Olives, Jesus is captured when Judas identifies Him to a hostile mob sent by Jewish authorities. He endures a corrupt, prejudiced trial, ending in a conviction for blasphemy. Peter, fearing for his life, lies about knowing Jesus, before remembering Jesus' prediction and breaking down in sobs.
Chapter Context:
Jesus has finished His public teaching ministry and now prepares for the crucifixion. His sacrificial loyalty will provide the means by which the disciples' abandonment will be forgiven. Next, the Romans, as representatives of Gentiles throughout history, will join the Jews and kill Jesus. Jesus will be buried, but He will rise again with the promise that His sacrifice will redeem the world. Matthew 26 and Luke 22 follow Mark 14 more closely while John 13:1—18:27 records more of Jesus' teaching in the upper room.
Book Summary:
The Gospel of Mark emphasizes both Jesus' servanthood and His role as the promised Messiah: the Son of God. This is done through a concise, action-packed style. Mark provides relatively few details, instead focusing on actions and simple statements. This relates to the Gospel's authorship, which is believed to be based on the memories of the apostle Peter. These include many of Jesus' miracles, in contrast to other Gospels which include many more of Jesus' teachings and parables. Mark also makes frequent mention of Jesus' ministry being misunderstood by others.
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