What does Luke 22:30 mean?
ESV: that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
NIV: so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
NASB: that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
CSB: so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. And you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
NLT: to eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom. And you will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
KJV: That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
NKJV: that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”
Verse Commentary:
Considering the context of this chapter, this night, and the day to come, this is an extraordinary promise. It is the Passover meal. Jesus and His disciples are having a private celebration. Jesus has spoken of the new covenant and the method by which He will usher it in. He will pay for the sins of the world and reconcile people with God through giving His body and His blood.

But this night, Judas has gone to betray Jesus (Luke 22:3–6). The disciples argue about who is the greatest (Luke 22:24). Then they'll sleep when they should be praying and run when they should remain with Jesus (Luke 22:39–46; Mark 14:50). And Peter will deny Him three times (Luke 22:54–62).

Despite the disciples' inconstancy, Jesus identifies them as "those who have stayed with me in my trials" (Luke 22:28). Despite their inappropriate grasping for power, He promises them a kingdom, a place at His royal table, and thrones on which to judge the tribes of Israel. In twenty-four hours, when Jesus is in a tomb and the disciples are in hiding, they will find this exceedingly difficult to believe.

It will happen, but the exact details and timing are God's responsibility. Earlier, when James and John's mother asked Jesus to give her sons special places in His kingdom, Jesus said, "To sit at my right hand and at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father" (Matthew 22:23). Moments before Jesus returns to heaven, the disciples will ask, "Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?" (Acts 1:6). Jesus responds, "It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority" (Acts 1:7).

The disciples learn that they can't assume authority by subjecting people to their power: they don't have any power. But they will lead when God gives them power and authority.
Verse Context:
Luke 22:24–30 is the heart of Luke 22. The disciples have a choice: will they grasp for worldly power like the Gentiles or will they strive to be servant-leaders like their Messiah? New covenant leadership in God's kingdom is service. The disciples' self-involvement fits perfectly between Jesus' warnings of Judas's betrayal (Luke 22:21–23) and Peter's denials (Luke 22:31–34). Some scholars suggest this exchange provides a springboard for Jesus to wash the disciples' feet in a demonstration of servant leadership (John 13:1–17). This passage contains information unique to this gospel.
Chapter Summary:
Luke 22 is a long chapter which records events leading to Jesus' political trials and crucifixion. He has successfully taught crowds at the temple and proved His authority over the religious leaders (Luke 19:47—20). Meanwhile the leaders have spent the week planning to arrest Jesus and have Him killed (Luke 19:47–48). This chapter records the Last Supper, the arrest on the Mount of Olives, and the trials before the Jewish religious leaders. Matthew 26, Mark 14, and John 18 cover much of the same information.
Chapter Context:
Luke 23 continues Jesus' trials before Pilate and Herod Antipas. He is then led to the cross where He forgives His murderers and saves a thief before He dies. In Luke 24, Jesus rises from the dead, meets two disciples while they travel, and explains to them how the Old Testament prophesied the death of the Messiah. In the final scene of the gospel, Jesus is reunited with His disciples, blesses them, and ascends into heaven.
Book Summary:
Luke was a traveling companion of Paul (Acts 16:10) and a physician (Colossians 4:14). Unlike Matthew, Mark, and John, Luke writes his gospel as an historian, rather than as a first-hand eyewitness. His extensive writings also include the book of Acts (Acts 1:1–3). These are deliberately organized, carefully researched accounts of those events. The gospel of Luke focuses on the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ. Luke's Gentile perspective presents Christ as a Savior for all people, offering both forgiveness and direction to those who follow Him.
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