What does Jude 1:6 mean?
ESV: And the angels who did not stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day—
NIV: And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their proper dwelling--these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day.
NASB: And angels who did not keep their own domain but abandoned their proper dwelling place, these He has kept in eternal restraints under darkness for the judgment of the great day,
CSB: and the angels who did not keep their own position but abandoned their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains in deep darkness for the judgment on the great day.
NLT: And I remind you of the angels who did not stay within the limits of authority God gave them but left the place where they belonged. God has kept them securely chained in prisons of darkness, waiting for the great day of judgment.
KJV: And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.
NKJV: And the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode, He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment of the great day;
Verse Commentary:
In this verse Jude refers to angels that rebelled against God's authority. They are charged with leaving their assigned role and leaving heaven. This statement may refer to the rebellion in heaven that Satan led against God in the dawn of human history (Isaiah 14:12–21; Ezekiel 28:12–19). He led as many as one third of the angels from their abode in heaven. Apparently, Satan and these angels were not content with the positions of authority God had assigned to them. They wanted greater authority and therefore rebelled against God. According to some interpreters, certain rebellious angels, called "sons of God" in Genesis 6:2, cohabited with "the daughters of man" (Genesis 6:1–4). Apparently as a result of this union, Nephilim, also translated as "fallen ones," or "giants" in English Bibles, appeared on earth.

Jude's reference to the rebellious angels may point to some other event known to Jude's readers, based on their familiarity with the non-biblical writings of Enoch. This book describes several instances of God's judgment against the fallen angels. At any rate, so far as Jude is using their example here, God punished those spiritual beings. He chained them in a place of darkness, where they await sentencing (2 Peter 2:4), likely when Satan is consigned to eternal punishment in the lake of burning sulfur (Revelation 20:7–10).
Verse Context:
Jude 1:5–16 describes the nature, errors, and fate of false teachers plaguing the Christian church. Jude's readers seem to have been acquainted with Israel's history. This passage references Old Testament events to help explain the apostates' sins, the danger they pose, and how the Lord will punish them. Jude references the unbelief of Israel after the Lord delivered them from slavery in Egypt, rebellious angels, the ungodly people of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the dangers of allowing such people to mingle with other believers.
Chapter Summary:
Jude's brief letter describes men at their worst and God at His best. Believers are already on the victorious side! Those who mock God's truth and who follow their own desires all while claiming to be Christians, are the most dangerous kind of unbelievers. These persons pose a danger to themselves and to any Christians they might influence. In response, Christians need to focus on understanding the truth of God's written Word and submitting to His will.
Chapter Context:
Jude is a single-chapter letter which reflects earlier warnings about apostates and their false teachings. Other passages of Scripture describe evil men who taught that Jesus was not fully human or fully God (1 John 2:22; 4:1–3), that God's grace allowed them to live immorally (2 Peter 2; Romans 6:1, 15), that Jesus blood was not an adequate sacrifice (Galatians 1:6–9; Hebrews 3:12–19; 10:19), and sinners gain a right standing in God's sight by keeping the law of Moses (Galatians 5:4, 7–9). Jude's letter combats false teaching and exhorts readers to remain faithful to the Lord.
Book Summary:
The book of Jude is a letter written by a half-brother of Jesus, likely later than AD 66–67, which was after 2 Peter was written. Its placement immediately before the book of Revelation is appropriate. This letter warns about false religion and evil men, whom Revelation describes as maliciously affecting political and religious conditions.
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