What does Jude 1:13 mean?
ESV: wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the gloom of utter darkness has been reserved forever.
NIV: They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars, for whom blackest darkness has been reserved forever.
NASB: wild waves of the sea, churning up their own shameful deeds like dirty foam; wandering stars, for whom the gloom of darkness has been reserved forever.
CSB: They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shameful deeds; wandering stars for whom the blackness of darkness is reserved forever.
NLT: They are like wild waves of the sea, churning up the foam of their shameful deeds. They are like wandering stars, doomed forever to blackest darkness.
KJV: Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.
NKJV: raging waves of the sea, foaming up their own shame; wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever.
Verse Commentary:
In this passage, Jude has been describing how false teachers are rejecting the truth in favor of their own sins. As a result, they are like "hidden reefs" which threaten to damage the spiritual lives of those around them (Jude 1:12).

In this verse, Jude compares the false teachers to wild waves of the sea that carry froth to the shore. The false teachers' words were frothy and shameful. Jude's indictment echoes Isaiah's description of the wicked as "like the tossing sea…its waters toss up mire and dirt" (Isaiah 57:20).

Jude also pictures the false teachers as shooting stars. They give only flickering light as they wander trackless and momentarily across the sky. The deepest darkness—everlasting punishment—is reserved for them. This statement, in particular, emphasizes that Jude views these false teachers as lost; they are not merely confused believers. They do not, in fact, have a saving faith in Christ.
Verse Context:
Jude 1:5–16 describes the nature, errors, and fate of false teachers plaguing the Christian church. Jude's readers seem to have been acquainted with Israel's history. This passage references Old Testament events to help explain the apostates' sins, the danger they pose, and how the Lord will punish them. Jude references the unbelief of Israel after the Lord delivered them from slavery in Egypt, rebellious angels, the ungodly people of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the dangers of allowing such people to mingle with other believers.
Chapter Summary:
Jude's brief letter describes men at their worst and God at His best. Believers are already on the victorious side! Those who mock God's truth and who follow their own desires all while claiming to be Christians, are the most dangerous kind of unbelievers. These persons pose a danger to themselves and to any Christians they might influence. In response, Christians need to focus on understanding the truth of God's written Word and submitting to His will.
Chapter Context:
Jude is a single-chapter letter which reflects earlier warnings about apostates and their false teachings. Other passages of Scripture describe evil men who taught that Jesus was not fully human or fully God (1 John 2:22; 4:1–3), that God's grace allowed them to live immorally (2 Peter 2; Romans 6:1, 15), that Jesus blood was not an adequate sacrifice (Galatians 1:6–9; Hebrews 3:12–19; 10:19), and sinners gain a right standing in God's sight by keeping the law of Moses (Galatians 5:4, 7–9). Jude's letter combats false teaching and exhorts readers to remain faithful to the Lord.
Book Summary:
The book of Jude is a letter written by a half-brother of Jesus, likely later than AD 66–67, which was after 2 Peter was written. Its placement immediately before the book of Revelation is appropriate. This letter warns about false religion and evil men, whom Revelation describes as maliciously affecting political and religious conditions.
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