What does John 18 mean?
Chapter Commentary:
The events of this chapter fulfill several predictions made by Jesus earlier in His ministry (Matthew 20:18; John 12:32–33; 13:26–27). First is His betrayal by a close associate (John 13:21). The traitor is Judas, who has already conspired with Jesus' enemies (Mark 14:10–11). Since John is writing well after the circulation of the other three Gospels, he leaves some details of Jesus' arrest and trials to those writers (Matthew 26—27; Mark 14; Luke 22—23). The words John refers to here are those from the High Priestly Prayer, recorded in chapter 17.

The first verses of this passage evoke several other parts of Scripture. Human history begins in a garden (Genesis 2:8) and eventually returns there (Revelation 22:1–5). Adam's sin and disobedience created death; Jesus' obedience will be part of atoning for that sin (1 Corinthians 15:45; Philippians 2:8; Genesis 3:12). David learned of betrayal by a former ally while crossing Kidron on the way to the Mount of Olives (2 Samuel 15:23–31).

Judas is a key piece of the plot against Jesus (John 11:57). In that era, there were no photographs or telephones. Clothing, hairstyles, and other fashion were usually nondescript. That made it difficult to find and identify people without help from someone who knew them personally. Judas not only knows Jesus personally, he knows when and where Jesus can be found away from a supportive crowd. Most likely, the scribes and Pharisees used the excuse of a possible rebellion (Luke 23:1–5) to justify sending armed soldiers (John 18:1–3).

Rather than running away, Jesus actively engages those coming to arrest Him. This is partly to establish that only Jesus, not His disciples, is to be taken in. It also marks a final demonstration of Jesus' power and willingness to obey God. Jesus evokes the same words used by God when identifying Himself to Moses (Exodus 3:14). Christ can flatten an entire squadron of armed men with a word, proving no one can force Him to comply (John 10:17–18). This will be the last truly "active" action of His earthly ministry. After this, Jesus' life will be entirely submitted to the actions of others (John 18:4–9).

Earlier in the evening, Peter bragged about his willingness to follow Jesus into death (John 13:37). To his credit, he acts with a form of bravery by lashing out at Jesus' attackers. Then again, Peter may have been driven by simple, blind rage. There's little cause for Peter to attack a servant, rather than a soldier. In an era where everyone was expected to be right-hand dominant, it's awkward for Peter to hit someone on the right side of their head. Either he was an especially clumsy swordsman, or he missed while attempting to hit someone else—such as Judas. Jesus condemns the action and heals the injured man (Luke 22:50–51). Only John mentions the name of the servant, possibly because he alone had contact with the high priest's family (John 18:10–11).

According to the Old Testament, high priests were meant to serve for life (Numbers 35:25). The Roman Empire was in the habit of installing their own leaders. It's possible Annas was the "real" high priest, replaced in an official Roman capacity by his son-in-law, Caiaphas, in AD 18. It was Caiaphas who ruthlessly insisted that Jesus needed to die (John 11:49–53), innocent or not, to prevent Rome from retaliating against Jerusalem. The details of these sham trials, mostly left to other Gospels, make it clear Jesus has long since been condemned by His enemies (John 18:12–14).

Despite Jesus clearly advocating for them to be left unharmed, Peter and John—the unnamed disciple of this passage—have secretly followed the group who were bringing Jesus into custody (Matthew 26:56–58). John might have been an extended relative of the high priest. His mother (Matthew 20:20) may have been Jesus' aunt (Mark 15:40; 16:1; John 19:25), and so related to the family of priests (Luke 1:13, 36). This may be why John is able to enter the courtyard easily, but needs to go back and advocate for Peter to be brought in. Peter's obvious Galilean accent (Matthew 26:73), among other things, makes him the target of suspicion. Despite earlier boasts, Peter begins to deny his relationship to Christ out of fear (John 18:15–18).

Jesus knows that His fate is sealed. However, He does not offer His enemies excuses. He calmly and clearly points out that there is no reason for Him to be arrested at night, or any question about what He is really teaching. If they had evidence against Him, they would be able to produce it. Those in power often confuse disagreement with disrespect, and that results in Jesus being abused while in custody. The two references to "high priest" in this passage reflect the difference between Israel's official role and the one recognized by the Roman government (John 18:19–24).

After the brief interlude explaining Jesus' initial meeting with Annas, John returns to Peter's awkward situation. Not only has his accent marked him as a Galilean, those nearby are becoming suspicious. As with the servant girl at the door, the first question expects a negative answer. After all, who would be foolish enough to show up at the home of the high priest when their master is under arrest? Even worse, one of the men there not only saw Peter's violence on the Mount of Olives, he's related to the victim. This leads to two more lies from Peter, who is afraid of being arrested himself. Jesus prophecy is fulfilled (John 13:38). Instant regret and shame overwhelm Peter (Luke 22:61–62; Matthew 26:75; Mark 14:72). This, in part, is because Jesus is just now being brought back outside and has heard Peter's loud denials (John 18:25–27).

History indicates that the relationship between Pilate and Israel was extremely poor. Pilate's heavy-handed style often included violence and outright insults. This was not ideal for Rome, who preferred to maintain peace. Pilate likely already knew something about Jesus (Matthew 21:1–11; John 12:12–19) but did not consider Him a threat (Matthew 27:18; Mark 15:10). Accusations of rebellion, however, mean he needs to find out whether Jesus claims to be a king, and what that means. Scholars suggest Pilate was afraid another ugly incident would result in being removed from his position. This partly explains the weak-willed approach he takes to Jesus' obvious innocence. It does not stop him from making snide, dismissive remarks (John 18:28–35).

Pilate's interrogation of Jesus makes it clear that He is not attempting to overthrow Roman control. On the contrary, Jesus makes it extremely clear that the kingdom He came to establish is not political or worldly. The same writer, John, will record the future event where Jesus does come to rule on earth (Revelation 19:11–15), but that is not the purpose of His first coming. In a moment of incredible irony, Pilate dismissively quips about truth, while turning away from the Truth (John 14:6). Pilate will seek to have Jesus released, but does not yet know the lengths to which the scribes and Pharisees will go (John 18:36–38).

The choice of Barabbas, a known murder and rebel (Luke 23:18–19) is an obvious ploy. If Pilate was the first to suggest it, this may be his way of trying to outmaneuver the scribes and Pharisees. Agreeing to release a confirmed criminal would contradict their accusations against Jesus. If suggested by the priests, this could be a way of sneering at Rome by supporting someone who actively fought against their rule. In either case, mob pressure (Matthew 27:24) is beginning to mount and Pilate is running out of options (John 18:39–40).

In the following passage, Jesus' enemies will lean heavily on the threat of civil unrest. This is a major religious holiday for Israel (John 18:28), so the area is overcrowded with devout Jews. The combined elements of blasphemy, insurrection, rioting, and stubbornness will eventually wear Pilate down, and he will make the cowardly choice to execute an innocent man (John 19:12–16).
Verse Context:
John 18:1–11 occurs after Jesus' High Priestly Prayer (John 17). The garden setting evokes both the beginning and end of human history (Genesis 2:8; Revelation 22:1–5). Christ's obedience contrasts with the disobedience of Adam (1 Corinthians 15:45; Philippians 2:8; Genesis 3:12). Writing after the other Gospels were in circulation, John skips over Jesus' prayers in the garden (Matthew 26:36–46). Judas arrives to identify Jesus so He can be arrested. Christ provides a last demonstration of power before submitting to His enemies. Peter's maiming of a servant is mentioned, along with Jesus' rebuke of Peter, but not the healing of the servant's ear (Luke 22:50–51), or the disciples retreat (Matthew 26:56). David, also, experienced betrayal by a close ally while crossing Kidron on the way to the Mount of Olives (2 Samuel 15:23–31).
John 18:12–14 prefaces Jesus' interrogation in front of Jewish religious leaders. Rome artificially installed high priests, despite the Old Testament calling for a lifetime appointment. Annas was a former high priest who'd been replaced by a new Roman governor. This initial interview, before Jesus is taken to Caiaphas, suggests Annas was a major figure in Jewish leadership, despite not holding an official office.
John 18:15–18 includes the first of Peter's predicted denials of Christ (John 13:36–38). Peter has followed the party who arrested Jesus, obviously at some distance, attempting to secretly see what will happen. Though Peter was brave in attempting to defend Jesus earlier, he shrinks in the face of danger here. Asked to admit his relationship with Christ, he lies. The unnamed disciple here is probably John, who may have been a relative of the priestly family.
John 18:19–24 begins a series of dishonest hearings led by Jewish religious leaders. The person leading the interrogation is Annas, the "true" high priest, though his son-in-law Caiaphas is Rome's current appointee. Much as a courtroom prosecutor might ask an accused to explain their actions, the high priest gives Jesus an opportunity to confess what He has taught. Yet, as Jesus points out, everyone there already knows what He has been teaching. Additional details of this sham trial are found in Matthew 26:59–68, Mark 14:55–65 and Luke 22:63–71.
John 18:25–27 returns to Peter, who has attempted to secretly follow Jesus during His arrest and trial (John 18:15). Two men recognize him, one from the recent incident where Peter maimed a servant (Luke 22:50–51). After lying about his relationship to Christ earlier (John 18:15–18), Peter repeats the denial two more times. This is consistent with Jesus' prediction (John 13:36–38), including the sound of a rooster crowing.
John 18:28–40 describes Jerusalem's religious leaders taking Jesus to the local Roman governor. While Jewish authorities are allowed punish blasphemers, Roman law will not let them administer the death penalty. Jesus is too well-liked to be assassinated, so His enemies will attempt to paint Him as a rebel against Rome. In a private interview with Pilate, Jesus claims His role as King, but also notes that His purpose is not yet to rule an earthly kingdom. Pilate attempts to appease the crowd, trying to spare a clearly innocent man, but a mob has formed to demand Jesus' death. John continues his habit of skipping details offered in other Gospels. He does not repeat the account of Jesus before the Sanhedrin (Mark 14:55–65), nor the part of Pilate's investigation where Jesus is sent briefly to Herod (Luke 23:6–12).
Chapter Summary:
Jesus is secretly, quietly arrested in the garden of Gethsemane and taken to a series of sham trials before Jewish leadership. This leads to His encounter with the local Roman governor. Jesus accepts being described as "King" but denies that His current purpose is earthly rule. A mob assembled by Jesus' enemies reject Pilate's attempt to free Jesus. In the meantime, Peter fulfills Christ's prophecy about a three-fold denial.
Chapter Context:
John's Gospel was written well after the other three, so he frequently chooses to present different details. Chapter 17 detailed Jesus' High Priestly Prayer, just before He entered the garden of Gethsemane. This chapter describes Jesus' arrest, sham trials before Jewish leadership, and the beginning of His trial before the Roman governor. In the following chapter, Jesus will be unfairly condemned, executed, and buried.
Book Summary:
The disciple John wrote the gospel of John decades after the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke were written. The author assumes that a reader is already familiar with the content of these other works. So, John presents a different perspective, with a greater emphasis on meaning. John uses seven miracles—which he calls "signs"— to prove that Jesus is, in fact, God incarnate. Some of the most well-known verses in the Bible are found here. None is more famous than the one-sentence summary of the gospel found in John 3:16.
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