What does Isaiah 9:6 mean?
ESV: For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
NIV: For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
NASB: For a Child will be born to us, a Son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.
CSB: For a child will be born for us, a son will be given to us, and the government will be on his shoulders. He will be named Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.
NLT: For a child is born to us, a son is given to us. The government will rest on his shoulders. And he will be called: Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
KJV: For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
NKJV: For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
Verse Commentary:
Isaiah has been describing Israel's future, when the Lord will return light to their dark land (Isaiah 9:2–3). He will bring rest, security, and abundance to them once more by breaking the oppression of their enemies. He will even bring an end to war itself (Isaiah 9:4–5). How will God bring about all this splendor for Israel?

This verse begins to describe how God will accomplish all of this. He will do it through a person: a human being who will be human born. This is a famous verse that modern Christians tend to think of as a Christmas passage. That's because it predicts the birth of Jesus, the hope of salvation for all peoples. However, it is also the promise of God to Israel of a deliverer, a Messiah, who will restore glory and joy to their nation. This child will be the King of Israel, as well as of the world.

This person Isaiah pictures is truly unusual and remarkable. He is undeniably human because He is born as a child. He will clearly be a king, because Isaiah states that the government "will rest on His shoulders." It was not unusual for kings to be given lavish titles in this era, but the titles given to this king quickly escalate. The titles start with the level of a crown prince, or specially empowered agent of God, to that of God. Isaiah leaves no room for question, this child Who will be born will be God Himself.

Isaiah writes that this deliverer will be called "Wonderful Counselor." This describes the kingly wisdom of a monarch such as Solomon. He will be a leader who will always make the best decisions in every scenario and give unfailing counsel to His subjects.

While that title might be given to an especially worthy human king, the next one could not. This person will be called "Mighty God." Some scholars attempt to render the language here to mean "great hero." But Isaiah clearly means to communicate that this deliverer of Israel, and the world, will be divine in and of Himself. He is describing the Messiah, who will ultimately be revealed to be Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

In addition, this king will be called both "Everlasting Father" and "Prince of Peace." Many kings have been referred to as the father of their people. However, this king's fatherhood will not end. He will continue as Father to one generation after another and then to all generations of His people for eternity. In short, He is God.

This king's reign over Israel and the earth will not be an endlessly bloody one where He rules with an iron fist. This divine king will be so powerful that He will create lasting peace on the earth, bringing an end to all war. He will rightly be given the title of "Prince of Peace." This is one of the names by which we know our Savior and Lord Jesus Christ, the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy.
Verse Context:
Isaiah 9:1–7 begins with the end to Isaiah 8. The darkness that was mentioned in that chapter will one day be permanently replaced with glory. Israel will abound in life and joy. The nation will be secure and free from oppression. War will end. Peace will be permanent. How will this happen? God will send a child who will become the forever king on David's throne. He will be called Mighty God and Prince of Peace. And He will rule in righteousness and justice. The Lord will cause all this to happen.
Chapter Summary:
Isaiah 9 begins prophecy about a future when darkness will be lifted from Israel. The nation will be free, prosperous, and at permanent peace. This will happen because God will send a child who will become a king on David's throne. More than a man, this king will be called Mighty God and Prince of Peace and will rule forever. In Isaiah's day, though, God's judgment will soon fall on Israel. He will wipe out their leaders. Wickedness burns through the nation like fire.
Chapter Context:
Isaiah 9 begins with what may be the conclusion of the previous chapter. Isaiah 8 ended with the description of the darkness experienced by those in Israel who reject the Lord. The prophet describes a day in Israel's far future when the gloom will lift and glory will return. A child will become king of Israel, but He will also be the Everlasting Father who will rule forever. However, In Isaiah's time, the Lord will judge Israel with destruction from other nations. The following chapter pronounces disaster for the people who persist in sin.
Book Summary:
Isaiah is among the most important prophetic books in the entire Bible. The first segment details God's impending judgment against ancient peoples for sin and idolatry (Isaiah 1—35). The second part of Isaiah briefly explains a failed assault on Jerusalem during the rule of Hezekiah (Isaiah 36—39). The final chapters predict Israel's rescue from Babylonian captivity (Isaiah 40—48), the promised Messiah (Isaiah 49—57), and the final glory of Jerusalem and God's people (Isaiah 58—66).
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