What does Isaiah 8:6 mean?
ESV: “Because this people has refused the waters of Shiloah that flow gently, and rejoice over Rezin and the son of Remaliah,
NIV: Because this people has rejected the gently flowing waters of Shiloah and rejoices over Rezin and the son of Remaliah,
NASB: 'Inasmuch as these people have rejected the gently flowing waters of Shiloah And rejoice in Rezin and the son of Remaliah;
CSB: Because these people rejected the slowly flowing water of Shiloah and rejoiced with Rezin and the son of Remaliah,
NLT: My care for the people of Judah is like the gently flowing waters of Shiloah, but they have rejected it. They are rejoicing over what will happen to King Rezin and King Pekah.
KJV: Forasmuch as this people refuseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly, and rejoice in Rezin and Remaliah's son;
Verse Commentary:
God has been speaking to Isaiah about coming destruction. This will be like a flooded river overpowering its banks and sweeping everything away (Isaiah 8:7). The "river" which comes is the invading army of the Assyrians. Their mighty empire is on the move, and the king of Assyria will bring its terror into their region. The Assyrians will first wipe out the enemies of Judah who have been threatening them, Israel and Syria. While that might seem good, at first, Assyria is not planning to stop. The Assyrians will continue to "flood" into new territory.

The prophecy in this passage is for the people of Judah. The Lord compares the power to save to the flowing waters of rivers. Ahaz and his people have refused the power of the Lord, represented here as moving waters. They did not believe the Lord's power would be effective in defending them against Israel and Syria. So instead they put their hope in the "river" of the king of Assyria (2 Kings 16:7–9).

In fact, by the time this part of Isaiah was written, Assyria had has already, or soon would, wipe out Israel and Syria. The people of Judah are rejoicing over this fact. The enemy they dreaded so deeply has been, or will soon be, destroyed. The king of Syria was Rezin and the son of Remaliah, Pekah, was king of Israel.

The next verses will reveal that the rejoicing of the people of Judah over the defeat of their enemies is premature. The powerful force they trusted to solve their problem will soon turn its strength against on them.
Verse Context:
Isaiah 8:1–10 continues the prophetic tone of Isaiah 7. The Lord tells Isaiah to write a name on a sign in front of prominent witnesses. Then Isaiah gives that name to a newborn son. Before that son is old enough to speak, Syria and Israel will be wiped out by Assyria. Assyria will then bring destruction to Judah. This is compared to a mighty river flooding over its banks. In poetry, Isaiah tells the people of Judah that their preparations for war will be meaningless and that they will be shattered.
Chapter Summary:
Isaiah 8 begins with the Lord telling Isaiah to write a name on a large sign. Then Isaiah conceives a son, with a woman referred to as the "prophetess," likely his wife. The son is given the name on the sign. Before the son can speak, Judah's enemies will be wiped out by Assyria. Assyria will then bring destruction on Judah. Isaiah must not live in fear and dread as the people do. They will stumble over the stone of the Lord instead of trusting in Him. Isaiah will continue to hope in the Lord. Those who reject God's truth will live in darkness.
Chapter Context:
The prior chapter included a famous prophecy regarding the virgin birth of Jesus. Isaiah 8 continues to prophesy about the coming destruction of Judah's current enemies: Syria and Israel. Isaiah has a son whose name he has written on a sign. Before that son is old enough to talk, Assyria will destroy Judah's enemies and then bring destruction into Judah. The Lord warns Isaiah to honor God, not live in fear. The people will reject God as their foundation, falling into further sin. But Isaiah declares that he and his family will continue to point toward God's faithfulness. Those who reject God's revelation will live in and frustration and despair. This sets up additional prophecies which connect to the ministry of Christ.
Book Summary:
Isaiah is among the most important prophetic books in the entire Bible. The first segment details God's impending judgment against ancient peoples for sin and idolatry (Isaiah 1—35). The second part of Isaiah briefly explains a failed assault on Jerusalem during the rule of Hezekiah (Isaiah 36—39). The final chapters predict Israel's rescue from Babylonian captivity (Isaiah 40—48), the promised Messiah (Isaiah 49—57), and the final glory of Jerusalem and God's people (Isaiah 58—66).
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