What does Isaiah 14:24 mean?
ESV: The LORD of hosts has sworn: “As I have planned, so shall it be, and as I have purposed, so shall it stand,
NIV: The LORD Almighty has sworn, 'Surely, as I have planned, so it will be, and as I have purposed, so it will happen.
NASB: The Lord of armies has sworn, saying, 'Certainly, just as I have intended, so it has happened, and just as I have planned, so it will stand,
CSB: The Lord of Armies has sworn: As I have purposed, so it will be; as I have planned it, so it will happen.
NLT: The Lord of Heaven’s Armies has sworn this oath: 'It will all happen as I have planned. It will be as I have decided.
KJV: The LORD of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand:
Verse Commentary:
Isaiah delivered an oracle against Babylon in Chapter 13. This is followed by a taunt-song against Babylon's fallen king in this chapter (Isaiah 14:4–21). Now, the prophet begins to prophesy about Assyria (Isaiah 14:24–27).

Commentators speculate that this is not a new oracle, but a continuation of the prophecy against Babylon. These scholars suggest that "Babylon" mentioned in this chapter is the representative name for all the Mesopotamian powers in the region. They suggest that this prediction focuses more specifically on Assyria. Or, perhaps, the Lord sees future Babylon as a mere extension of Assyria, which was the major threat of Isaiah's time.

In either case, this is a revelation from the Lord. Isaiah simply quotes God as saying what He will do. The Lord of hosts has sworn to act in a specific way, and that is what will happen. "Hosts" here is referring to the armies of angels the Lord has at His command. God makes it clear that He will do was He has decided to do. Nothing will cause the course of events to be altered.
Verse Context:
Chapter 14:24–27 presents a brief prophecy against the Assyrians living in Isaiah's own time. The Lord openly declares His purpose to break the Assyrians in His land. He will break their oppression of His people. This likely happened in 701 BC when Assyrian King Sennacherib held Jerusalem in a siege. The angel of the Lord struck down massive numbers of Assyrians in a single night (2 Kings 19:35–36). Nobody can alter what the Lord has purposed or annul His plans. The Lord will do as He said He will do.
Chapter Summary:
After the oracle against Babylon in the previous chapter, Isaiah briefly describes what will follow for Judah. In compassion, the Lord will choose His people once more. He will return them to their homeland. They will sing a mocking taunt-song against the fallen king of Babylon. Isaiah pronounces oracles from the Lord against Assyria and Philistia. The Lord will break the Assyrians in His land. With heavy symbolism, Isaiah seems to prophecy that the Assyrians will defeat the Philistines with a siege four years before it happens. God's people will find refuge in Zion.
Chapter Context:
Chapter 14 follows the oracle about the destruction of Babylon with a brief encouragement to the people of Judah. The Lord will restore them to the land. They will taunt the fallen Babylonian king, using phrases many also associate with the fall of Satan. Isaiah pronounces oracles from the Lord against Assyria and Philistia. He declares that He will break the Assyrians in His land, freeing His people from their oppression. Philistia will fall at the Lord's hand to a famine inflicted on them by a power from the north. Next, Isaiah's prophecy will turn to Moab.
Book Summary:
Isaiah is among the most important prophetic books in the entire Bible. The first segment details God's impending judgment against ancient peoples for sin and idolatry (Isaiah 1—35). The second part of Isaiah briefly explains a failed assault on Jerusalem during the rule of Hezekiah (Isaiah 36—39). The final chapters predict Israel's rescue from Babylonian captivity (Isaiah 40—48), the promised Messiah (Isaiah 49—57), and the final glory of Jerusalem and God's people (Isaiah 58—66).
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