What does Genesis 49:19 mean?
ESV: “Raiders shall raid Gad, but he shall raid at their heels.
NIV: Gad will be attacked by a band of raiders, but he will attack them at their heels.
NASB: 'As for Gad, a band of raiders shall attack him, But he will attack at their heels.
CSB: Gad will be attacked by raiders, but he will attack their heels.
NLT: 'Gad will be attacked by marauding bands, but he will attack them when they retreat.
KJV: Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last.
NKJV: “Gad, a troop shall tramp upon him, But he shall triumph at last.
Verse Commentary:
After a lifetime of struggle (Genesis 47:9), Jacob is very near to the end of his life (Genesis 48:1). He has called his sons to gather around him, pronouncing a series of predictions about the tribes to come from them (Genesis 49:1–2).

This brief remark about Gad (Genesis 30:10–11) is an overt play on words. The Hebrew term geduwd, sometimes transliterated as gadud, refers to raiding or attacking. It can be either a noun, meaning "raiders," or a verb, meaning "to raid." That word sounds very much like the name Gad, which primarily refers to a blessing, but which can also refer to troops. Jacob's phrase uses repeating sounds, literally, "Gād gedūd' yeguden ū w hū' yāgud āqēb'." To English-speaking ears, this would be something like "[Gad-ers] will [gad] Gad, but he will [gad] them back."

As a tribe, Gad would eventually settle (1 Chronicles 5:11–17) in an area prone to border raids by foreign invaders. Gadites became famous for their fighting fierceness and strength (1 Chronicles 5:18–19).
Verse Context:
Genesis 49:13–21 records Jacob's deathbed predictions, this time regarding six of his sons: Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, and Naphtali. These are relatively brief, and not entirely positive. While Jacob addresses the first four (Genesis 49:3–12) and last two (Genesis 49:22–27) of his sons in birth order, there is no obvious ranking in his comments here. As compared to other tribes, these would play lesser roles in Israel's future.
Chapter Summary:
Genesis 49 contains Jacob's dying prophetic remarks. In the form of poetry, Jacob pronounces positive and negative "blessings" about each of his 12 sons and the people who will come from them. Reuben, Simeon, and Levi are each held to account for their past sins. Judah is described as a lion; the kingly line will come from his people. Joseph and his descendants are lavished with blessings. Once the oracle is completed, Jacob commands his sons to bury him with his fathers in Canaan. Then, the man God named "Israel" (Genesis 35:10–11) dies.
Chapter Context:
After a life of struggle and controversy, Jacob's family has securely settled in Egypt. Genesis 48 told of Jacob's blessing on Joseph's two oldest sons: Ephraim and Manasseh. In Genesis 49, Jacob gives both positive and negative predictions to each of his sons, in turn. Jacob then commands his sons to bury him in Canaan, then dies. The final chapter of Genesis describes the family's mourning and Joseph's death. The opening verses of Exodus race forward some 400 years, as the nation of Israel falls into harsh slavery under new Egyptian rulers (Exodus 1:8–14).
Book Summary:
The book of Genesis establishes fundamental truths about God. Among these are His role as the Creator, His holiness, His hatred of sin, His love for mankind, and His willingness to provide for our redemption. We learn not only where mankind has come from, but why the world is in its present form. The book also presents the establishment of Israel, God's chosen people. Many of the principles given in other parts of Scripture depend on the basic ideas presented here in the book of Genesis. Within the framework of the Bible, Genesis explains the bare-bones history of the universe leading up to the captivity of Israel in Egypt, setting the stage for the book of Exodus.
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