What does Genesis 36:23 mean?
ESV: These are the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
NIV: The sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho and Onam.
NASB: And these are the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
CSB: These are Shobal's sons: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
NLT: The descendants of Shobal were Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
KJV: And the children of Shobal were these; Alvan, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
Verse Commentary:
The descendants of Seir the Horite are listed in this section (Genesis 36:20–30). The Horites were the original peoples of the territory (Genesis 14:6) which would be conquered and occupied by Esau and his descendants. This nation would be known as Edom (Genesis 36:1), and the Edomites would become enemies of Israel (Numbers 20:14–21; 1 Samuel 14:47; 2 Kings 8:20; Obadiah 1:8–11).

Seir's son Shobal fathered Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
Verse Context:
Genesis 36:20–30 describes the people Esau and his offspring defeated to take control of their homeland (Deuteronomy 2:12). These are the Horites (Genesis 14:6), descended from a man named Seir. After Esau's conquest, the region became known as Edom (Genesis 36:1).
Chapter Summary:
Genesis 36 describes the generations of Esau, mostly focusing on the genealogy and rulers of the land of Edom. Repeatedly, the chapter emphasizes that Esau is Edom, repeating an association made earlier in Genesis (Genesis 25:25, 30). The Edomite people are his descendants. The regions in the land of Edom are named for his offspring. The chapter diverts briefly to give the genealogy of the Horite people (Genesis 14:6) who occupied the land before it was conquered (Deuteronomy 2:12). Finally, the chapter lists eight kings of Edom, along with the chiefs whose names became associated with the regions their clans occupied.
Chapter Context:
Genesis 35 concludes with the death of Isaac. It marks the end of the story arc which focused on him (Genesis 25:19). Genesis 36 briefly describes the generations of Esau, Jacob's twin brother, listing his sons, grandsons, and the kings of Edom, the nation that came from Esau. This is parallel to how Genesis 25:12–18 relayed the fate of Ishamel, another son who did not carry the line of promise. Genesis 37 begins the generations of Jacob, focusing mostly on the story of Joseph.
Book Summary:
The book of Genesis establishes fundamental truths about God. Among these are His role as the Creator, His holiness, His hatred of sin, His love for mankind, and His willingness to provide for our redemption. We learn not only where mankind has come from, but why the world is in its present form. The book also presents the establishment of Israel, God's chosen people. Many of the principles given in other parts of Scripture depend on the basic ideas presented here in the book of Genesis. Within the framework of the Bible, Genesis explains the bare-bones history of the universe leading up to the captivity of Israel in Egypt, setting the stage for the book of Exodus.
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