What does Genesis 36:16 mean?
ESV: Korah, Gatam, and Amalek; these are the chiefs of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Adah.
NIV: Korah, Gatam and Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in Edom; they were grandsons of Adah.
NASB: chief Korah, chief Gatam, and chief Amalek. These are the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Adah.
CSB: chief Korah, chief Gatam, and chief Amalek. These are the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom. These are the sons of Adah.
NLT: Korah, Gatam, and Amalek. These are the clan leaders in the land of Edom who descended from Eliphaz. All these were descendants of Esau’s wife Adah.
KJV: Duke Korah, duke Gatam, and duke Amalek: these are the dukes that came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons of Adah.
NKJV: Chief Korah, Chief Gatam, and Chief Amalek. These were the chiefs of Eliphaz in the land of Edom. They were the sons of Adah.
Verse Commentary:
In this passage, Genesis lists the names of the chiefs from among the sons and grandsons of Esau. The list includes most of the names already given in the previous verses. Those records noted Esau's sons and grandsons according to which of His wives they were born (Genesis 36:9–14).

These "chiefs" are likely tribal leaders of Edom (Genesis 36:1). They include Eliphaz's sons Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, and now Korah, Gatam, and Amalek. Of these, Korah was previously said to be the son of Oholibamah. This may be a second Korah previously unmentioned.

The people of Amalek, the Amalekites, would come to be one of Israel's most vicious enemies (Exodus 17:8, 16; Deuteronomy 25:17–19; 1 Samuel 15:2–3).
Verse Context:
Genesis 36:9–19 describes the family lines descending from Esau, who was also known as Edom (Genesis 36:1). These are the important families who expanded after he moved his family from Canaan to Seir (Genesis 14:6; Deuteronomy 2:12).
Chapter Summary:
Genesis 36 describes the generations of Esau, mostly focusing on the genealogy and rulers of the land of Edom. Repeatedly, the chapter emphasizes that Esau is Edom, repeating an association made earlier in Genesis (Genesis 25:25, 30). The Edomite people are his descendants. The regions in the land of Edom are named for his offspring. The chapter diverts briefly to give the genealogy of the Horite people (Genesis 14:6) who occupied the land before it was conquered (Deuteronomy 2:12). Finally, the chapter lists eight kings of Edom, along with the chiefs whose names became associated with the regions their clans occupied.
Chapter Context:
Genesis 35 concludes with the death of Isaac. It marks the end of the story arc which focused on him (Genesis 25:19). Genesis 36 briefly describes the generations of Esau, Jacob's twin brother, listing his sons, grandsons, and the kings of Edom, the nation that came from Esau. This is parallel to how Genesis 25:12–18 relayed the fate of Ishamel, another son who did not carry the line of promise. Genesis 37 begins the generations of Jacob, focusing mostly on the story of Joseph.
Book Summary:
The book of Genesis establishes fundamental truths about God. Among these are His role as the Creator, His holiness, His hatred of sin, His love for mankind, and His willingness to provide for our redemption. We learn not only where mankind has come from, but why the world is in its present form. The book also presents the establishment of Israel, God's chosen people. Many of the principles given in other parts of Scripture depend on the basic ideas presented here in the book of Genesis. Within the framework of the Bible, Genesis explains the bare-bones history of the universe leading up to the captivity of Israel in Egypt, setting the stage for the book of Exodus.
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