What does Genesis 10:1 mean?
ESV: These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.
NIV: This is the account of Shem, Ham and Japheth, Noah's sons, who themselves had sons after the flood.
NASB: Now these are the records of the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and sons were born to them after the flood.
CSB: These are the family records of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. They also had sons after the flood.
NLT: This is the account of the families of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the three sons of Noah. Many children were born to them after the great flood.
KJV: Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.
Verse Commentary:
This verse introduces what is sometimes called the table of nations. In addition to listing some of the descendants of Noah's sons, the chapter also mentions the lands and nations that formed among these descendants. This is the purpose God intended for mankind in His commands after the flood: to repopulate the earth (Genesis 9:7). As part of His will, God had promised to never again destroy the earth with a flood (Genesis 9:11).

It's an awesome thought to realize that the descendants of these individuals became the peoples of the ancient world, the nations that Israel would eventually interact with as a nation themselves. The incidents of the prior chapter have a drastic impact on these future generations. Since Ham dishonored Noah (Genesis 9:24), his son Canaan was cursed. The out-workings of that curse will not be clear until many generations later, when Israel arrives in the Promised Land.

The verse is clear that these sons were born to Noah's three sons after the flood and not before.
Verse Context:
Genesis 10:1–5 details the descendants of Noah's son, Japheth. Japheth's sons will largely settle in the regions north of what would later become the nation of Israel. While some mention is made of these descendants, they will not be directly involved in many biblical events. Chapter 11 will describe the event that causes the peoples to be dispersed across the world into their separate regions.
Chapter Summary:
Genesis 10 is sometimes called the table of nations. It describes, in three sections, the peoples that descended from Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Japheth's people settled mostly to the north of what would be Israel. Ham's people became great nations in the region of the Middle East, including the people that would settle in the Promised Land before Israel drove them out. Shem's line would lead to Abraham and the Israelites.
Chapter Context:
Genesis 9 described events that happened between God, Noah, and his three sons after the flood. Genesis 11 will tell the story of the Tower of Babel and the dispersal of the nations. Between them, Genesis 10 is a table of the nations that come from Japheth, Ham, and Shem after God divides and disperses humanity.
Book Summary:
The book of Genesis establishes fundamental truths about God. Among these are His role as the Creator, His holiness, His hatred of sin, His love for mankind, and His willingness to provide for our redemption. We learn not only where mankind has come from, but why the world is in its present form. The book also presents the establishment of Israel, God's chosen people. Many of the principles given in other parts of Scripture depend on the basic ideas presented here in the book of Genesis. Within the framework of the Bible, Genesis explains the bare-bones history of the universe leading up to the captivity of Israel in Egypt, setting the stage for the book of Exodus.
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