What does Ephesians 4:6 mean?
ESV: one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.
NIV: one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.
NASB: one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.
CSB: one God and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all.
NLT: one God and Father of all, who is over all, in all, and living through all.
KJV: One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.
Verse Commentary:
Paul adds a seventh and final "one" to complete his list begun in verse 4. Christians are all saved by the grace of the same God, uniquely defined and identified in the Old and New Testaments. Contrary to modern notions that Christians worship the same God as other religions, Christian worship a unique God of Father, Son, and Spirit. Legitimate Christianity accepts Jesus as God's divine Son, as well as Lord.

Paul also noted this Father "is over all and through all and in all." Each of this verse's four references to "all" come from the same Greek root word, pas. This phrasing is used by Paul to cover every possible aspect which God could be sovereign over. There is no god or being higher than Him. Every legitimate follower of Christ adheres to this belief of "one God." This concept is so fundamental, and so critical to the faith, that it can be traced to the first words of Scripture: "In the beginning, God" (Genesis 1:1). A foundational belief of the Torah is that God is one (Deuteronomy 6:4–5).
Verse Context:
Ephesians 4:1–10 is Paul's compelling description of Christian unity. Every saved believer, regardless of talent or skill, Jew or Gentile, male or female, is saved by the same faith in the same God. Each Christian, therefore, is part of a single, universal family of believers in Jesus Christ. At the same time, God gives different gifts to different people, so that they can serve the many roles needed to accomplish His purposes here on earth. Rather than being concerned about what gifts we might lack, each Christian can rejoice in our unity, and focus on serving God to the best of our ability.
Chapter Summary:
Truly understanding saving grace, as Paul explained in prior chapters, is the Christian's first motivation for living a godly life. Here, Paul encourages believers to live in way which honors that gift. All saved Christians are part of a single, unified family, part of the ''body'' of Christ. At the same time, different believers are given different talents. Some are called to positions of leadership and authority. All Christians should turn away from the ''old self'' we were prior to being saved. Paul's explanation of the ''new self'' includes some basic, practical steps.
Chapter Context:
The first half of Ephesians focuses mostly on doctrine, setting up ideas related to the Christian faith. The last half, beginning in chapter 4, puts those theories into practice. Paul begins by emphasizing the ultimate unity of all Christians, regardless of individual spiritual gifts. Paul also begins to explain how knowledge of the truths should translate into action. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 feature specific, real-world applications of Christianity to daily life.
Book Summary:
Ephesians follows a theme common in Paul's writings: connecting theory with practice. In this book, however, he goes into greater depth before making the transition. As a letter meant to be read by more than just the believers at Ephesus, this is an important look at how Christian belief should translate into Christian action. The first three chapters lay out spiritual ideas, the last three chapters show how these truths should be applied in the life of a mature believer. Paul focuses heavily on love, the unity of the Christian church, and the incredible value of our salvation through Christ.
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