What does Acts 7:29 mean?
ESV: At this retort Moses fled and became an exile in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons.
NIV: When Moses heard this, he fled to Midian, where he settled as a foreigner and had two sons.
NASB: At this remark, MOSES FLED AND BECAME A STRANGER IN THE LAND OF MIDIAN, where he fathered two sons.
CSB: "When he heard this, Moses fled and became an exile in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons.
NLT: When Moses heard that, he fled the country and lived as a foreigner in the land of Midian. There his two sons were born.
KJV: Then fled Moses at this saying, and was a stranger in the land of Madian, where he begat two sons.
NKJV: Then, at this saying, Moses fled and became a dweller in the land of Midian, where he had two sons.
Verse Commentary:
This is a very short synopsis of Exodus 2:15–22 which summarizes Moses' second forty years. Moses, an Israelite who was raised as an Egyptian, murdered an Egyptian who was beating an Israelite. The next day, he came upon one Israelite abusing another and asked why they would fight since they were of the same people. The aggressor mocked Moses, asking if he was going to kill him, too. When Pharaoh discovered Moses had killed someone, he tried to kill Moses in return. Moses fled to Midian where he met and married Zipporah and had two sons, Gershom and Eliezer (Exodus 2:15–22; 18:3–4; Acts 7:23–28).

Midian is a region about the size of the Sinai Peninsula that sits on the Arabian Peninsula at the mouth where the Gulf of Aqaba feeds into the Red Sea. It was settled by the descendants of Midian, the son of Abraham and his second wife Keturah (Genesis 25:1–4). Moses' father-in-law was Jethro who is described as "a priest of Midian" (Exodus 2:16). Jethro is also called "Reuel," which means "friend of God," so it's possible Midian continued the worship of God as his father Abraham taught him. Unfortunately, the Israelites will have problems with the Midianites on their way to the Promised Land (Numbers 22; 25; 31).

Hebrews 11:24–27 gives an account that seems to contradict Moses' actions here. It says that Moses chose to identify with the Israelites over the Egyptians and left Egypt without fear. Hebrews 11:28, however, explains that the description is of Moses at the time of the exodus when he led the Israelites out of Egypt.
Verse Context:
Acts 7:23–29 furthers Stephen's defense against allegations that he disrespects the Law, the temple, and Moses (Acts 6:8–15). He has obliquely reminded his audience that God was the God of the Jews before they had a temple or even a homeland (Acts 7:1–16). Now, he outlines their beloved Moses' not-so-honorable beginnings. Their most-respected prophet and leader started as a murderer. Stephen is recounting the story originally given in Exodus 2:11–22.
Chapter Summary:
Stephen is a Greek-speaking Jewish Christian and one of the first deacons in the church in Jerusalem (Acts 6:1–7). He's also a skilled apologist and has been debating Jews from outside Judea about the proper place of the Mosaic law and the temple (Acts 6:8–15). His opponents cannot counter his arguments so they resort to lies. They tell the Sanhedrin that Stephen wants to destroy the temple and repeal the Mosaic law. Stephen counters that his accusers don't respect Moses or the Law, and the temple isn't necessary to worship God. This enrages the mob, and Stephen is stoned, becoming the first Christian martyr.
Chapter Context:
Chapter 7 is one of the pivot points of the book of Acts. Until recently, the early church has seen favor from the people and indifference from the Sanhedrin. Now, the Sanhedrin has beaten the apostles and ordered them not to preach about Jesus (Acts 5:40), and the people are starting to realize how different Christianity is. In Jerusalem, a Hellenist Jewish Jesus-follower named Stephen has been in a debate with other foreign Jews who finally accuse him of wishing to destroy the temple, like Jesus (Acts 6:8–15). This is Stephen's defense, which leads to his death and the introduction of Paul.
Book Summary:
The summary of the book of Acts is provided in Jesus' words in Acts 1:8: ''But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.'' In Acts 2:1–13, the Christ-followers receive the Holy Spirit. Acts 2:14—7:60 describes the rapid growth of the church in Jerusalem. Chapters 8—12 find Jewish persecution inadvertently spreading the gospel throughout Judea and Samaria. And in chapters 13—28, Paul and his companions spread the good news throughout the Roman Empire.
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