What does Acts 13:45 mean?
ESV: But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and began to contradict what was spoken by Paul, reviling him.
NIV: When the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy. They began to contradict what Paul was saying and heaped abuse on him.
NASB: But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and began contradicting the things spoken by Paul, and were blaspheming.
CSB: But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and began to contradict what Paul was saying, insulting him.
NLT: But when some of the Jews saw the crowds, they were jealous; so they slandered Paul and argued against whatever he said.
KJV: But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy, and spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming.
NKJV: But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy; and contradicting and blaspheming, they opposed the things spoken by Paul.
Verse Commentary:
Paul and Barnabas have returned to the synagogue where Paul spoke a week prior. His message covered God's gracious salvation of Israel throughout their history, including His promise that He would send an ultimate Savior through the line of David. Paul then explained how the Jewish Scriptures showed that Jesus is that Savior (Act 13:15–41). Some of the Jews and many of the God-fearing Gentiles asked Paul to return and tell them more. In the ensuing time, they tell their friends and family, and so many people come to hear Paul speak that the synagogue leadership—"the Jews"—get jealous.

In the Abrahamic covenant, God promised that He would bless the world through Abraham (Genesis 12:3). This blessing is the coming of Jesus of Nazareth, the Savior of the world. The intent was that before Jesus, Israel as a nation would faithfully follow the Mosaic law and be a "light for the nations" (Isaiah 42:6), showing the people the greatness of God. After Jesus came, they would directly share the gospel with the nations. Israel failed, and God allowed Assyria and then Babylon to take their independence, but the offer of God's salvation must go to God's people, first. The Sanhedrin, the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem, already rejected and murdered Jesus. With each new town, Paul and Barnabas will first go to the synagogue and offer Jesus' message to the local Jewish leadership. They will nearly all reject it.

This breaks Paul's heart. He will later write, "For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh" (Romans 9:3). But Jewish culture is communal, and even though many individual Jews accept Paul's message, if the leadership doesn't lead the people into a saving relationship with Christ, then "Jews" have rejected Him.

The leadership in Pisidian Antioch will incite Gentile city leaders to drive Paul and Barnabas out of the district. As Jesus instructed the disciples, Paul and Barnabas will shake the dust off their feet as they leave (Matthew 10:14), but the Jews and Gentiles who listen to Paul and accept his words about Jesus will receive the Holy Spirit (Acts 13:50–52). Paul and Barnabas will meet opposition like this—and much worse—throughout this first missionary trip. In their next stop, Iconium, the people and rulers will try to stone them (Acts 14:5). In Lystra, the antagonists from Pisidian Antioch and Iconium will follow them and rile up the locals. They will stone Paul (Acts 14:19). And yet, when Paul and Barnabas return to their home base of Syrian Antioch, they will "[declare] all that God had done for them, and how he had opened a door of faith to the Gentiles" (Acts 14:27).
Verse Context:
Acts 13:42–52 details the response to Paul's message in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch. Many Gentiles and some Jews accept the news about Jesus gladly, but the synagogue leaders don't. Since Jews live in community, and the Jewish community leaders feel threatened by Paul's message and popularity, Paul can say "the Jews" reject Jesus' offer of eternal life. Paul turns his attention to the Gentiles until the Jewish leaders join with city leaders to drive Paul and Barnabas out of town.
Chapter Summary:
Acts 13 transitions Luke's account (Acts 1:1) fully into a record of Paul's ministry to spread the news about Jesus. The Holy Spirit calls Paul and Barnabas for their first missionary journey. They teach about Jesus' offer of forgiveness of sins on the island of Cyprus and in the district of Pisidia in modern-day south-central Asia Minor. Along the way, they face opposition, desertion, and persecution: themes that will follow Paul throughout his life. But they also experience the joy of watching the people they'd least expect come to a saving faith in Jesus.
Chapter Context:
The first chapters of Acts, save for a quick account of Paul's conversion (Acts 9:1–31), cover the ministry of the apostles, particularly Peter. Those passages also detail the spread of the news about Jesus from His followers. That message goes to the Jews of Jerusalem (Acts 2—7) and Judea (Acts 8:26–40; 9:32–43), the Samaritans (Acts 8:4–25), and God-fearing Gentiles (Acts 10—11). Now, Paul's contribution to the ''end of the earth'' portion of Jesus' commission in Acts 1:8 begins, as he and Barnabas start their first missionary journey. Luke will record two more of Paul's journeys (Acts 15:36—18:22 and 18:23—20:38) before settling in on his return to Jerusalem, arrest, and sea voyage to Rome (Acts 21—28).
Book Summary:
The summary of the book of Acts is provided in Jesus' words in Acts 1:8: ''But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.'' In Acts 2:1–13, the Christ-followers receive the Holy Spirit. Acts 2:14—7:60 describes the rapid growth of the church in Jerusalem. Chapters 8—12 find Jewish persecution inadvertently spreading the gospel throughout Judea and Samaria. And in chapters 13—28, Paul and his companions spread the good news throughout the Roman Empire.
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