What does 2 Timothy 1:10 mean?
ESV: and which now has been manifested through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel,
NIV: but it has now been revealed through the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who has destroyed death and has brought life and immortality to light through the gospel.
NASB: but has now been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel,
CSB: This has now been made evident through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who has abolished death and has brought life and immortality to light through the gospel.
NLT: And now he has made all of this plain to us by the appearing of Christ Jesus, our Savior. He broke the power of death and illuminated the way to life and immortality through the Good News.
KJV: But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:
NKJV: but has now been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ, who has abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel,
Verse Commentary:
Speaking of the gospel, Paul writes that it has been revealed through Jesus Christ. The word "manifested" here is from the Greek phanerōtheisan, which means to "uncover, explain, reveal, or show." In prior generations, God had revealed His message through various prophets. During the time Paul lived, Jesus had appeared and revealed the gospel to all people (Hebrews 1:1–4). Paul wrote in Romans 3:21, "But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it." In 1 Timothy 3:16, Paul also spoke of Jesus, saying, "He was manifested in the flesh."

This verse also contrasts death with life. Jesus ended the scourge of spiritual death, and provided life through the gospel. This message is the "good news" of Christ as the resurrected Messiah. In addition to life, Jesus brought "immortality," or eternal life (John 3:16). The believer in Christ has abundant life now (John 10:10) and eternal life in heaven with the Lord and other believers. This is through the gospel, not works, emphasizing again the gospel of grace (Ephesians 2:8–9).
Verse Context:
Second Timothy 1:8–18 encourages Timothy to be brave and protective of his faith. Paul reminds his dear friend Timothy that the Spirit of God grants Christians spiritual power. As a result, they should not be afraid to associate with persecuted brothers and sisters. Timothy is encouraged to hold to accurate, healthy Christian teachings. Paul also refers to various ministry partners who have supported—or abandoned—him.
Chapter Summary:
Paul introduces himself, then recaps Timothy's path to becoming a minister. He reminds Timothy of how his family brought him up in the faith, and then how Timothy served faithfully with Paul in the past. Paul then focuses on two primary ideas. First, that Timothy's background in the faith should give him the courage to stand fast against hard times. Second, that Timothy should use that courage to defend the truth of the gospel message. Paul will use these points and examples as the foundation for the rest of his letter.
Chapter Context:
Chapter 1 establishes Timothy's spiritual background. Paul expresses gratitude for Timothy, by reminding him of his past, in order to set the stage for later teachings. Paul first expresses gratitude for Timothy's prior faithfulness, and reminds him of how God called him into ministry. From that point, Paul encourages Timothy to be brave and to guard the truth of the gospel message. Later chapters will explain why Paul feels these traits are necessary, both for the sake of the world and for Timothy in general.
Book Summary:
Second Timothy is the last New Testament letter written by Paul. Paul writes these words while awaiting execution by Rome. At this time, around AD 67, Timothy was leading the church in Ephesus. Paul writes to Timothy in order to encourage him. Paul is facing the worst of all hardships: his own impending death. So, he encourages Timothy to stand strong in his faith, with a reliance on the written Word of God. This letter echoes many of the themes Paul uses in his other letters.
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