What does 2 Thessalonians 1:5 mean?
ESV: This is evidence of the righteous judgment of God, that you may be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are also suffering—
NIV: All this is evidence that God's judgment is right, and as a result you will be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are suffering.
NASB: This is a plain indication of God’s righteous judgment so that you will be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you indeed are suffering.
CSB: It is clear evidence of God's righteous judgment that you will be counted worthy of God's kingdom, for which you also are suffering,
NLT: And God will use this persecution to show his justice and to make you worthy of his Kingdom, for which you are suffering.
KJV: Which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer:
NKJV: which is manifest evidence of the righteous judgment of God, that you may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you also suffer;
Verse Commentary:
The Thessalonians' endurance of persecution and afflictions would demonstrate the fact that God is just. When God evaluated the Thessalonians' faith, He would declare them worthy of His kingdom.

Enduring trials with faith does not earn anyone a place in God's kingdom, but enduring trials by faith shows the reality of our faith. If a person fails the test of suffering, it shows his faith is false. Writing to suffering Christians, James counsels: "Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness…Blessed is the man who remains steadfast under trial, for when he has stood the test he will receive the crown of life, which God has promised to those who love him" (James 1:2–3, 12).

Paul writes that the Thessalonian believers were suffering for the kingdom of God. During his visit to Antioch, Paul encouraged the believers there to continue in the faith. He told them "that through many tribulations we must enter the kingdom of God" (Acts 14:22).
Verse Context:
Second Thessalonians 1:5–12 refers to the Thessalonians' trials as evidence that God is righteous and just. Paul indicates that the Thessalonians' faith and endurance would prove their status as inheritors of God's kingdom. Further, Paul assures his readers that God will avenge those who troubled the Thessalonians, giving the persecuted ones relief. When Jesus returns with His angels, He will inflict flaming fire on those who do not know God and on those who heard the gospel but rejected it. Their punishment will include eternal ruin and separation from God. When Jesus returns, those who have believed in Him will share in Jesus' glory and will marvel at Him. This look into the future was meant to help the Thessalonians continue to be steadfast under persecution and trouble. Paul prays that God would enable his readers to live successfully and worthy of their calling.
Chapter Summary:
The apostle Paul received word that some Thessalonian believers did not understand clearly what he had written about the day of the Lord. Paul had told them in his first letter that Christians were exempt from the judgment and tribulation of the day of the Lord. However, some of the Thessalonians thought the day of the Lord had already begun, because they were undergoing fierce persecution. Here, Paul seeks to relieve those misunderstandings. He also addresses the matter of idleness and tells the church how to deal with those who are idle. Paul commends the believers for perseverance and faith, encouraging them to live according to the teachings he had given them.
Chapter Context:
Second Thessalonians opens with Paul's typical greetings, then shifts into encouragement. In his prior letter, Paul had explained the nature of death, for a Christian believer, and given a description of Christ's eventual return for His people. Now, the Thessalonian believers were experiencing persecution. Though they seem to be enduring it well, Paul reminds them that judgment before God awaits all people. Those who are persecuted for His sake will be part of His kingdom, while those who reject Him will face fire and vengeance. After this, Paul returns to the subject of Christ's return, and the rapture, seemingly to combat misunderstandings which linger despite his earlier letter.
Book Summary:
Second Thessalonians follows Paul's earlier letter to the same group of Christian believers. In 1 Thessalonians, Paul had praised them for their faithfulness and given them reassurances about the day of the Lord. This included teachings on the rapture and a description of death as ''sleep'' from a Christian viewpoint. In this second letter, Paul corrects possible misunderstandings about those ideas. Among his teachings here are the importance of a good work ethic and God's impending judgment on sin, including judgment on those who persecute the Christian church. Paul also provides the Thessalonians with reassurances that they have not somehow missed out on Christ's return.
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