What does 2 Thessalonians 1:10 mean?
ESV: when he comes on that day to be glorified in his saints, and to be marveled at among all who have believed, because our testimony to you was believed.
NIV: on the day he comes to be glorified in his holy people and to be marveled at among all those who have believed. This includes you, because you believed our testimony to you.
NASB: when He comes to be glorified among His saints on that day, and to be marveled at among all who have believed—because our testimony to you was believed.
CSB: on that day when he comes to be glorified by his saints and to be marveled at by all those who have believed, because our testimony among you was believed.
NLT: When he comes on that day, he will receive glory from his holy people — praise from all who believe. And this includes you, for you believed what we told you about him.
KJV: When he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony among you was believed) in that day.
NKJV: when He comes, in that Day, to be glorified in His saints and to be admired among all those who believe, because our testimony among you was believed.
Verse Commentary:
This verse teaches that God will execute judgment on unbelievers when Jesus comes back. This promise refers to Jesus' second coming, not to the rapture. He does not execute judgment at the rapture, but lifts Christians up from the earth to be with Him at that time. At His second coming to earth believers will glorify Him and also share in His glory. Colossians 1:27 says Christ in us is "the hope of glory." Suffering is for just a little while, but glory lies ahead. Believers will enter Jesus' earthly kingdom to reign with Him (2 Timothy 2:12) and to be dazzled by His glory. In 2 Thessalonians 1:10 Paul includes the Thessalonian believers in the prospect of marveling at Jesus, he writes, "because our testimony to you was believed."

This bright prospect of the day Jesus will be glorified in His saints and marveled at among all who have believed makes current suffering seem light. Paul wrote in 2 Corinthians 4:17, "For this light momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison."
Verse Context:
Second Thessalonians 1:5–12 refers to the Thessalonians' trials as evidence that God is righteous and just. Paul indicates that the Thessalonians' faith and endurance would prove their status as inheritors of God's kingdom. Further, Paul assures his readers that God will avenge those who troubled the Thessalonians, giving the persecuted ones relief. When Jesus returns with His angels, He will inflict flaming fire on those who do not know God and on those who heard the gospel but rejected it. Their punishment will include eternal ruin and separation from God. When Jesus returns, those who have believed in Him will share in Jesus' glory and will marvel at Him. This look into the future was meant to help the Thessalonians continue to be steadfast under persecution and trouble. Paul prays that God would enable his readers to live successfully and worthy of their calling.
Chapter Summary:
The apostle Paul received word that some Thessalonian believers did not understand clearly what he had written about the day of the Lord. Paul had told them in his first letter that Christians were exempt from the judgment and tribulation of the day of the Lord. However, some of the Thessalonians thought the day of the Lord had already begun, because they were undergoing fierce persecution. Here, Paul seeks to relieve those misunderstandings. He also addresses the matter of idleness and tells the church how to deal with those who are idle. Paul commends the believers for perseverance and faith, encouraging them to live according to the teachings he had given them.
Chapter Context:
Second Thessalonians opens with Paul's typical greetings, then shifts into encouragement. In his prior letter, Paul had explained the nature of death, for a Christian believer, and given a description of Christ's eventual return for His people. Now, the Thessalonian believers were experiencing persecution. Though they seem to be enduring it well, Paul reminds them that judgment before God awaits all people. Those who are persecuted for His sake will be part of His kingdom, while those who reject Him will face fire and vengeance. After this, Paul returns to the subject of Christ's return, and the rapture, seemingly to combat misunderstandings which linger despite his earlier letter.
Book Summary:
Second Thessalonians follows Paul's earlier letter to the same group of Christian believers. In 1 Thessalonians, Paul had praised them for their faithfulness and given them reassurances about the day of the Lord. This included teachings on the rapture and a description of death as ''sleep'' from a Christian viewpoint. In this second letter, Paul corrects possible misunderstandings about those ideas. Among his teachings here are the importance of a good work ethic and God's impending judgment on sin, including judgment on those who persecute the Christian church. Paul also provides the Thessalonians with reassurances that they have not somehow missed out on Christ's return.
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