What does 1 Samuel 2:7 mean?
ESV: The Lord makes poor and makes rich; he brings low and he exalts.
NIV: The Lord sends poverty and wealth; he humbles and he exalts.
NASB: The Lord makes poor and rich; He humbles, He also exalts.
CSB: The Lord brings poverty and gives wealth; he humbles and he exalts.
NLT: The Lord makes some poor and others rich; he brings some down and lifts others up.
KJV: The Lord maketh poor, and maketh rich: he bringeth low, and lifteth up.
NKJV: The Lord makes poor and makes rich; He brings low and lifts up.
Verse Commentary:
How much of life do people spend planning, scheming, and despairing about money and wealth? While our choices help us to avoid poverty or build wealth (Proverbs 10:4–5; 12:11; 13:11; 14:23; 21:5 24:33–34), ultimate control over how much money we have at any given moment is limited (Luke 12:13–21; James 4:13–16). The one who controls life and death (1 Samuel 2:6) can certainly reverse financial situations any time He chooses (Matthew 6:25–34; Philippians 4:11–13).

Hannah declares that it is God who makes one poor or rich during the limited span of human lives on earth. Also, because money is so often connected to social standing in the community, Hannah adds that it is the Lord who brings some low in the community and exalts others to positions of higher status.

Just as we respond to the reality of God's sovereignty over life and death with humility and dependence on the Lord, so, too, should we respond to the reality of His sovereignty over economic and social realities (Luke 12:22–34; Philippians 4:4–8; 1 Peter 5:6–7).
Verse Context:
First Samuel 2:1–11 contains Hannah's poetic prayer of praise to the Lord in response to His gift of a son, Samuel. She offers the prayer after delivering Samuel into Eli's care at the sanctuary in keeping with her vow to the Lord (1 Samuel 1:11, 24–28). The main emphasis of the prayer is that God is holy and sovereign. He can reverse life situations, bringing the rich and powerful down and lifting the poor, hungry, and barren. The one who controls life and death guards those faithful to Him.
Chapter Summary:
After delivering Samuel to the Lord, Hannah offers a poetic prayer of praise. The sons of Eli the priest are evil, depraved men who abuse their power as priests. They coerce worshippers to give them additional meat. They sleep with women who serve at the sanctuary. In contrast, Samuel grows in favor with God and others as he grows up physically. Hannah and Elkanah continue to go to Shiloh yearly; they also have more children. Eli rebukes his sons, but they don't repent. The Lord tells Eli that all his descendants will die young and his two rebellious sons will die on the same day. The Lord will raise up a faithful priest to do His will.
Chapter Context:
The prior chapter explained how Hannah cried out to God for a son, and that her request was granted. First Samuel 2 begins with Hannah's praise to the Lord in response. Samuel remains in Shiloh where he ministers and matures. By contrast, Eli's sons are wicked and abuse their power as priests. A prophet reveals that God will cause all Eli's descendants to die young and his two sons to die on the same day. The Lord will raise up a faithful priest from another part of the family line. This provides background for Samuel's call from God in chapter 3.
Book Summary:
First Samuel introduces the key figures who led Israel after the era of the judges. The books of 1 and 2 Samuel were originally part of a single text, split in certain translations shortly before the birth of Christ. Some of the Bible’s most famous characters are depicted in this book. These including the prophet Samuel, Israel’s first king, Saul, her greatest king, David, and other famous names such as Goliath and Jonathan. By the end of this book, Saul has fallen; the book of 2 Samuel begins with David’s ascension to the throne.
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