What does 1 Samuel 2:32 mean?
ESV: Then in distress you will look with envious eye on all the prosperity that shall be bestowed on Israel, and there shall not be an old man in your house forever.
NIV: and you will see distress in my dwelling. Although good will be done to Israel, no one in your family line will ever reach old age.
NASB: And you will look at the distress of My dwelling, in spite of all the good that I do for Israel; and there will never be an old man in your house.
CSB: You will see distress in the place of worship, in spite of all that is good in Israel, and no one in your family will ever again reach old age.
NLT: You will watch with envy as I pour out prosperity on the people of Israel. But no members of your family will ever live out their days.
KJV: And thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation, in all the wealth which God shall give Israel: and there shall not be an old man in thine house forever.
NKJV: And you will see an enemy in My dwelling place, despite all the good which God does for Israel. And there shall not be an old man in your house forever.
Verse Commentary:
God's statement of impending on Eli continues. Eli's family will survive to see Israel blessed with prosperity at the same time his own line of descendants live in continual distress. Some commentators understand this verse to say that the sanctuary and those who serve in it will be distressed or diminished even as the rest of Israel grows strong and wealthy.

Why will Eli's descendants and the sanctuary, in general, suffer so much while Israel grows stronger? It will be because none of Eli's sons or grandsons or descendants will reach old age, bringing stability and continuity to the family or the sanctuary. Instead, every one of them will die young and the line of the family will shrivel up (1 Samuel 2:31).
Verse Context:
First Samuel 2:27–36 describes a meeting between Eli and an unnamed prophet of the Lord. The anonymous messenger confronts the old priest, as the Lord asks Eli why he has insulted the Lord's sacrifices and honored his own sons over God. For this sin, God will afflict Eli's descendants, causing all who come after him to die young. Eli's own two sons will die on the same day as a sign this is true. The Lord will raise up a faithful priest from another branch of the family line of priests.
Chapter Summary:
After delivering Samuel to the Lord, Hannah offers a poetic prayer of praise. The sons of Eli the priest are evil, depraved men who abuse their power as priests. They coerce worshippers to give them additional meat. They sleep with women who serve at the sanctuary. In contrast, Samuel grows in favor with God and others as he grows up physically. Hannah and Elkanah continue to go to Shiloh yearly; they also have more children. Eli rebukes his sons, but they don't repent. The Lord tells Eli that all his descendants will die young and his two rebellious sons will die on the same day. The Lord will raise up a faithful priest to do His will.
Chapter Context:
The prior chapter explained how Hannah cried out to God for a son, and that her request was granted. First Samuel 2 begins with Hannah's praise to the Lord in response. Samuel remains in Shiloh where he ministers and matures. By contrast, Eli's sons are wicked and abuse their power as priests. A prophet reveals that God will cause all Eli's descendants to die young and his two sons to die on the same day. The Lord will raise up a faithful priest from another part of the family line. This provides background for Samuel's call from God in chapter 3.
Book Summary:
First Samuel introduces the key figures who led Israel after the era of the judges. The books of 1 and 2 Samuel were originally part of a single text, split in certain translations shortly before the birth of Christ. Some of the Bible’s most famous characters are depicted in this book. These including the prophet Samuel, Israel’s first king, Saul, her greatest king, David, and other famous names such as Goliath and Jonathan. By the end of this book, Saul has fallen; the book of 2 Samuel begins with David’s ascension to the throne.
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